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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurofilaments, part of the cytoskeletal network, and neuron specific enolase, a major enzyme in glycolysis, are both present in central and peripheral neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100, on the other hand, are soluble proteins which are found exclusively in the supportive cells of the nervous system, i.e. the glial cells. Examination was made, using immunocytochemistry, of all main areas of the gastrointestinal tract of three mammalian species, rat, pig and man. By applying serial tissue sectioning, it was possible to study the relative occurrences of the two neuronal markers in the same cell bodies and to examine the relationships of the neurons with the glial cells as revealed by the antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Both neurofilaments and neuron specific enolase were localised to an extensive system of enteric nerves, with the level of neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity showing greater variability than that observed using antibodies to neurofilaments. Comparison of the occurrence of neuron specific enolase and neurofilament immunoreactivity in serially sectioned neuronal cell bodies revealed that a minor population stained only with antibodies to neurofilaments. The equivocal or absent neuron specific enolase-immunoreactivity in some perikarya may reflect variations in functional status within the nervous system. Glial fibrillary acidic protein- and S-100-immunoreactivities were confined to glial cells which, in this normal tissue, were always in close association with the neurons. In conclusion, neurofilament-, glial fibrillary acidic protein-and S-100-immunostaining can be used to reveal the enteric nervous system and its supportive cells in these three mammals. The combined use of all these neuronal and non-neuronal markers may be helpful in delineating the enteric nervous system and assessing its morphological and functional status.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to neurofilament proteins, neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 have been used to demonstrate nerves, ganglion cells and the supportive glial system of the innervation of various organs. The female genitalia, the urinary tract, the respiratory system, the pancreas, the heart and the skin of several mammalian species, including rat, mouse, guinea pig, cat, pig, monkey and man were fixed in parabenzoquinone and portions of each organ were snap frozen. Serial or free-floating thick cryostat sections were stained using indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. In addition, the newly described and highly sensitive immunogold-silver staining technique was used on Bouin's-fixed and wax-embedded tissues. Antibodies to neurofilament proteins seemed to react with neuronal structures in all the species studied. Alternately stained serial sections showed a similar distribution of neurofilament proteins and neuron-specific enolase-containing nerves. Neuron-specific enolase staining had a diffuse appearance and was found to be highly variable, indicating that the neuron-specific enolase content might be related to the physiological state of the nerves and ganglion cells, whereas antibodies to neurofilament protein gave a consistently intense and very clear picture of the ganglion cells and nerve fibres. Antibodies to S-100 stained supportive elements of the peripheral nervous system in all tissues examined, whereas antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein were more selective.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hyperplasia of endocrine cells in the lung of the adult rat exposed to asbestos has only been characterised so far by electron microscopy as there is a lack of reliable staining techniques for their demonstration at light microscopical level. Neuron specific enolase (NSE), an isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase has recently been shown to be present in lung endocrine cells. In this study we reveal a marked endocrine cell hyperplasia at light microscopical level in the lungs of adult rats exposed to asbestos using antibodies to NSE. Very large groups of NSE-immunoreactive cells (20–80) were only observed in the lungs of rats exposed to asbestos for 12 months. In addition smaller groups of cells (2–10) known to be present normally and to decrease with age, were rarely noted in the controls but were frequently detected in the treated rats. Immunoreactive NSE is therefore a very good marker for endocrine cell hyperplasia and thus of early neoplastic changes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; GFAP ; NSE ; Retinoblastoma ; S-100
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An immunocytochemical study of 30 retinoblastomas was carried out using antibodies to neuronal and glial markers. The tumours were found to react with antibodies to neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker for neuronal elements, and S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), both of which are proteins present in glia. Two distinct cell populations were found within the tumour: the first, composed of anaplastic tumour cells at various stages of differentiation, showed both NSE and S-100 immunoreactivity; the second cell type, which immunostained for S-100 and GFAP, resembled mature glial cells. The results of this study indicate that the retinoblastoma may arise from a pluripotential primitive cell partially retaining neuronal and glial characteristics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Cytoskeleton components ; Immunocytochemistry ; Neuroblastomas ; NSE ; S-100 ; Tyrosine hydroxylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of different neural markers in 30 neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas) and 6 non-neuroblastic tumours were investigated by immunocytochemistry. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100 protein, tyrosine hydroxylase, neurofilaments and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were localized in 3 undifferentiated neuroblastic tumours (group A), 12 poorly differentiated tumours (group B) and 15 well differentiated neuroblastic tumours (group C). Non-neuroblastic tumours (3 lymphomas and 3 Ewing sarcomas) showed no immunoreactivity. Tyrosine hydroxylase and, in particular, NSE were found in mature ganglion cells and developing neuroblasts of poorly and well differentiated tumours (groups B and C). S-100 was localised in neuroblasts with slender cytoplasmic processes in the same groups. Neurofilaments were detected in ganglion cells and differentiated neuroblasts (groups B and C) while GFAP was localised in immature neuroblasts of undifferentiated and poorly differentiated tumours (groups A and B). Thus, there are differences in the neural proteins found in neuroblastic tumours and a wide panel of antibodies against neural markers may be a useful tool in the histological assessment of nervous system neoplasms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma ; GFA protein ; NF protein ; Neuron-specific enolase ; Immunoperoxidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-two cases of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA), five of which associated with tuberous sclerosis, were reviewed by conventional neurohistological stains and by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, the 68 Kd neurofilament subunit (68 Kd-NF), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Neurohistological stains confirmed the presence of PTAH-positive fibrils and the absence of Nissl bodies and of neurites originating from the tumor cells. GFA protein-positive cells were present in all tumors not associated with tuberous sclerosis. However, the number of positive cells in each tumor was highly variable. GFA protein-positive cells were rare in the two SGCA accompanying tuberous sclerosis and absent in the remaining three. Neurohistological stains showed no differences between GFA protein-positive and negative cells. 68 Kd-NF-positive cells were found in six tumors. In one tumor, associated with tuberous sclerosis, it was present in the large ganglion-like cells only. NSE-positive cells were found in 13 of 18 tumors examined, including four of the five SGCA associated with tuberous sclerosis. The significance of NSE-positivity in central neuroepithelial neoplasms in respect of their possible neuronal origin remains open. This study suggests that the SGCA, especially those associated with tuberous sclerosis, include cells that are apparently unable to express GFA protein. Some of the tumor cells express the 68 Kd-NF, but this expression falls short of the complete expression of neuronal differentiation. The unique morphological appearances of the SGCA and the discrepancies reported in electron-microscopic and immunohistochemical studies suggest that the cell of origin of these tumors is the product of a dysgenetic event in early development. As a result, the potential of that cell for astrocytic or neuronal differentiation may be incompletely or aberrantly expressed, in particular when the stigmata of tuberous sclerosis are also present. No evidence of obvious ganglionic differentiation and no inference of a neuronal origin of the tumor cells in SGCA could be adduced from the present histochemical findings. This study supports the general interpretation of these tumors as a variant of astrocytoma.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 49 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ontogenesis of rat forebrain adenosine uptake sites labelled by [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine ([3H]NBI) was determined and compared to that of rat forebrain adenosine receptors labelled by N6-cyclohexyl[3H]adenosine ([3H]-CHA). [3H]NBI binding is highly invariant with similar levels of [3H]NBI binding sites from embryonic day 19 to day 30 postpartum. Scatchard and Hill analyses reveal the binding of [3H]NBI in 6-day-old tissue to be indistinguishable from such binding in 30-day-old tissue. In contrast, [3H]-CHA binding is highly variant. [3H]CHA binding develops slowly but steadily from about embryonic day 19, with adult binding levels being achieved at around 25 days postpartum. The ontogenetic profile of [3H]CHA appears to coincide with synaptogenesis whereas that of [3H]NBI does not.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 42 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ontogeny of chick brain and heart ventricle calcium antagonist binding sites was determined, using [3H]nitrendipine ([3H]NDP), as the ligand. The binding of [3H]NDP to adult heart and brain was kinetically very similar, with the former displaying a KD of 0.28 ± 0.02 nM and a Bmax of 138 ± 17 fmol/mg protein, and the latter a KD of 0.30 ± 0.02 nM and a Bmax of 160 ± 12 fmol/mg protein. The binding site in both brain and heart was highly specific for dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, such as nifedipine, nimodipine, and nisoldipine, since these drugs were several orders of magnitude more potent as inhibitors of [3H]NDP binding than verapamil, methoxyverapamil, or diltiazem. The developmental appearance of [3H]NDP binding sites in brain was rather gradual, with adult levels being attained just prior to birth. This was in contrast to the profile in heart ventricle which showed essentially adult levels at seven days gestation. The acquisition of [3H]NDP binding sites in chick brain roughly paralleled the onset of neuronal maturation and functional activity. In both chick brain and heart, verapamil and methoxyverapamil were weak inhibitors of [3H]NDP binding. However, the inhibition of binding in both tissues was markedly biphasic, with only 50% of the binding sites being susceptible to inhibition by each agent, suggesting that multiple calcium antagonist binding sites may exist in both tissues.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract— Neuron specific protein (NSP) has been isolated from cat (NSP-C) and human (NSP-H) brain utilizing the purification procedure described for rat brain 14-3-2 (Marangoset al., 1975a,b,c), a protein which is now designated NSP-R. The protein as isolated from cat and human brain has a molecular weight of approx 80,000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium. Sedimentation studies done in the presence of 6mg-HCl and 0.2%β mercaptoethanol yields a protomer M.W. of approx 40,000 for both preparations establishing the dimeric nature of each. The subunits appear identical in each case since one band is observed upon electrophoresis of either preparation in the presence of 8 M-urea. NSP-C and NSP-H have identical isoelectric points of 4.7 making them slightly more acidic than NSP-R (pi = 5.0).Comparison of NSP-C and NSP-H with NSP-R and bovine 14-3-2 by electrophoretic and immunological criteria revealed that the cat, human and bovine proteins were very similar. NSP-R can be distinguished from the other three preparations electrophoretically and immunologically. The protomer unit of NSP-R differs in amino acid composition from that of the cat, human or bovine proteins since the former can be completely resolved from any of the latter three preparations on 8 M-urea polyacrylamide gels. The data indicate that NSP and bovine 14-3-2 are probably homologous proteins, and establish the general structural properties of NSP.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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