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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A survey was made of maize and barley in Germany for the occurrence of toxigenic strains of Fusarium and of the mycotoxins produced in culture by these strains. The following 6 species of Fusarium were found: F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F.oxysporum, F. poae, and F. tricinctum. The species most commonly isolated from bird-damaged maize ears was F. avenaceum while F. culmorum was consistently isolated from maize stem rot. The predominant species in barley grain was F. poae while F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, and F. tricinctum were also isolated frequently. Cultures on autoclaved maize of all the Fusarium strains were assayed for toxicity by feeding to 1-day-old chickens for 14 days. Some strains of F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum proved to be acutely toxic to chickens and caused mortality as well as marked reductions in weight gain and feed consumption. All the strains of F. poae and F. tricinctum had a low degree of toxicity. Culture material of all the strains were analyzed for the presence of 11 known Fusarium mycotoxins. The following 4 mycotoxins were detected in the strains examined: moniliformin in 9 out of 9 F. avenaceum strains (2 to 760 ppm) and in the single strain of F. oxysporum (1150 ppm); zearalenone in 4 out of 5 F. culmorum strains (320 to 1400 ppm); deoxynivalenol in 3 out of 5 F. culmorum strains.(1 to 15 ppm); and acetyldeoxynivalenol (1 to 2 ppm) in 3 out of 5 F. culmorum strains. This is the first report of moniliformin production by F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum and also the first report of the occurrence of moniliformin-producing Fusarium strains in Europe.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Because F. tricinctum occurs so frequently on corn and other grains that are used in the manufacture of commercial animal feeds, including fish pellets, it is possible that contamination with the F. tricinctum toxin can occur in these products. Fig. 1. Total daily mortality of rainbow trout ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium beomiforme ; F. dlamini ; F. moniliforme ; F. napiforme ; F. nygamai ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four recently described species, Fusarium nygamai, F. dlamini, F. beomiforme and F. napiforme and two uncertain taxa, F. nygamai from millet in Africa and Fusarium species from rice with Bakanae disease, were tested for toxicity and moniliformin production. Cultures grown on autoclaved corn were fed to groups of four one-day-old ducklings for 14 days. Isolates that caused the death of 3 or 4 out of 4 ducklings were considered to be toxic and analyzed for moniliformin. All 15 isolates of F. dlamini tested were nontoxic. The other taxa contained some isolates that were toxic to ducklings and produced moniliformin in corn cultures. This is the first report of moniliformin production by F. beomiforme (200–890 μg/g), and F. napiforme (16–388 μg/g), and by F. nygamai not obtained from millet in Africa (15–874 μg/g). The highest production of moniliformin was obtained from the 19 isolates of F. nygamai from millet in Africa (4300–18200μg/g) and the 15 isolates from rice with Bakanae disease (2300–19300 μg/g). The taxonomic position of these two uncertain taxa should be re-evaluated.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Diplodia ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A shipment of South African corn (1989) exported to Taiwan, was analyzed for various ear-rot fungi andFusarium mycotoxins. Two sets of samples, one from the points of origin in South Africa prior to shipment, and the other from the end-point distributors in Taiwan, were studied. Surface-sterilized kernels were plated onto two different agar media and the fungal colonies identified. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to analyze mycotoxin levels. The predominant ear-rot fungi, in decreasing order of isolation frequency, wereFusarium subglutinans, F. moniliforme, Diplodia maydis andF. graminearum. Aspergillus flavus andA. parasiticus were not isolated from samples prior to export, but a small number ofA. flavus isolates were found after shipment. The predominant mycotoxins were fumonisins B1 (0–865 ng/g) and B2 (0–250 ng/g). Low levels of moniliformin (≤390 ng/g) were detected in some samples before shipment. Zearalenone (25 ng/g), and nivalenol (120 ng/g) were detected in two out of 32 samples taken in Taiwan. The samples contained no detectable levels of either aflatoxins (〉0.5 ng/g) or deoxynivalenol (〉100 ng/g) before or after shipment.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alternaria ; Aspergillus ; Corn ; Diplodia ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Corn (Zea mays) is the main cereal produced in and exported from Argentina. The risk of contamination by mycotoxins is related to the mycoflora associated with the corn kernels. This paper reports on the identification of internal and external mycoflora of corn kernels harvested in the main production area in Argentina in 1990. A mycological survey was carried out on 178 corn samples, from five locations in that area and the isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera compared. GenusFusarium was the most prevalent component of the internal seedborne mycoflora in the five locations.Penicillium was prevalent in all locations, taking into account the frequency. However, this genus was predominant only in two locations, when the relative density was considered. The predominantFusarium wasF. moniliforme and the most frequently isolated species ofAlternaria, Aspergillus andPenicillium wereA. alternata, A. flavus andP. decumbens, respectively.Diplodia species were not isolated from any of the samples.
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