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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Osteopetrosis in laboratory animals is a metabolic bone disease characterized by increased skeletal mass. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive and results from a defect in the development and/or function of osteoclasts. We studied two enzymes essential for bone resorption, carbonic anhydrase II isoenzyme (CA II) and H+-ATPase, in osteoclasts from four osteopetrotic mutations in the rat; namely incisors-absent (ia), osteopetrosis (op), toothless (tl), and microphthalmia (mib), to test the hypothesis that reduced bone resorption in one or more of these mutations results from defects in the synthesis or activity of one of these enzymes. CA II was present in most osteoclasts from normal, tl, op, and mib littermates and was homogeneously distributed in cytoplasm. CA II staining in ia osteoclasts was more variable and less intense than in the other mutations. H+-ATPase was also present in osteoclasts from normal animals and mutants and immunostaining showed clear polarization to the ruffled border region in all normal rats and mutants except ia, which showed diffuse distribution of staining in the cytoplasm. H+-ATPase activity (proton transport) in a related tissue, kidney, was normal in tl and ia rats but increased in op and mib rats compared to their normal littermates. These results suggest that the osteoclasts in osteopetrotic rat mutations are not abnormal with respect to the distribution of CA II and H+-ATPase and that the function of these enzymes in the skeleton, while likely normal, needs to be tested directly in bone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Previous reports have described an accelerated induction of new attachment and repair of furcations in dogs after treatment of roots surfaces with citric acid, but few controlled clinical studies have examined its usefulness in surgical treatments for periodontitis. This study compared the effects of a comprehensive surgical plaque control procedure with or without citric acid treatment for generalized and localized effects on gingival height, probing pocket depth and attachment level in 72 teeth in 3 patients who were treated surgically for moderate periodontitis and examined every 3 months for 1 year. No statistically significant differences in the effects of the 2 treatments were observed. These observations suggest that there is no clinical advantage of citric acid conditioning of the root surface during surgical treatment of periodontitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 41 (1985), S. 192-199 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Spleen ; hemopoiesis and regulation ; hematologic functions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The maintenance of alveolar bone is a major clinical objective in dentistry. This is particularly difficult following such local inflammatory episodes as those of periodontitis or the loss of dentition (residual ridge resorption). We present evidence from beagle dogs that local infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE) for 3 weeks at doses of 500 to 2000μg per week produces a dramatic, localized formation of alveolar bone in the mandible which exhibits a normal lamellar architecture and mineralization pattern when evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and microradiography. Whether this newly formed bone becomes functionally integrated into the skeleton and can replace bone lost from surgical resections or trauma remains to be established. Nevertheless, these data indicate that predictable local osteogenesis may eventually be produced by infusions of PGE.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Osteopetrosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by reduced bone resorption of heterogenous cause. The rabbit mutation is lethal and exhibits ultrastructural aberrations in osteoclasts and osteoblasts together with hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and failure to be cured by bone marrow transplantation. We have studied dental abnormalities in mutants from birth to 3 wk using radiographic, cytologic and autoradiographic methods. Radiographs show hypoplasia of most teeth in mutants. The maxillary incisor is smaller and more curved and the mandibular incisor thin and straight compared to normal littermates. The first 3 molars in both arches are unerupted and of distorted shape while the last 2 are less affected. Microscopically areas of ankylosis of mutant incisors and the first 3 molars were commonly encountered even at birth. Osteoclasts were numerous. Autoradiograms of 3H-proline incorporation showed strong periosteal and weak endosteal labeling of bone in both mutants and normal littermates. Dentin labeling in mutant incisors and molars was not less than that in normal rabbits and sites of ankylosis in mutants exhibited labeling. These data indicate that osteopetrotic rabbits exhibit major aberrations in shape and eruption of incisors and most molars and that these effects are not due to lack of dentin formation. Early ankylosis, perhaps secondary to congenital reduction of bone resorption, appears to be the major cause of the dental abnormalities which are less severe in the youngest (posterior) teeth.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recent evidence for an extraskeletal origin of osteoclasts and the historical record of the genesis of osteoclasts are examined critically. Reviews of the structure, function and development of osteoclasts from mononuclear precursors, the local regulation of bone resorption and the coupling of bone formation to preceding resorption are presented as a background for discussing the clinical implications for management of osteolytic bone diseases. The roles of osteoclasts and macrophages as phagocytes are compared and contrasted, and recent evidence for macrophage heterogeneity resulting from site-specific monoblastic precursors is reviewed. The implications of these recent developments in macrophage biology are extrapolated to osteoclasts and the existence of site-specific, extraskeletal tsteoclast precursors is proposed. Finally, the investigative challenges inherent in these perspectives are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dental follicle is a loose connective tissue layer that surrounds the developing and erupting tooth. The follicle is necessary for tooth eruption in dogs and specific cellular changes occur in the follicle at the onset of tooth eruption, in particular, within the coronal region of the follicle next to areas of subsequent bone resorption there is an increase in mononuclear cells which have the ultrastructure features of monocytes and contain specific granules characteristic of preosteoclasts. The follicle has an extensive microvasculature and monocytes are often seen adjacent to capillaries and venules. Monocytes increase in number in direct proportion to the increase in osteoclasts that form the eruption pathway and decrease in number as soon as this activity is completed. It is postulated that monocytes enter the follicle from the microvasculature and then migrate to the walls of the bony crypt to participate in the formation of the eruption pathway.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Formation of cementum, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament was produced in 18 sites on buccal surfaces of mandibular premolars and molars of 11 adult dogs near to sites of local delivery of prostaglandin E1 (PGE) for three weeks. Mineralizing bone and cementum were labelled with fluorescent dyes and polarizing microscopy showed periodontal ligament fibers between these new mineralized tissues. These observations extend recent demonstrations that local application of PGE causes formation of new bone on the mandible and suggest the potential for predictable, site-directed periodontal regeneration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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