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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Immunology ; Microbiology ; Medical virology ; Biomedicine ; Medical Microbiology ; Immunology ; Virology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Mamoru Ito's Vision for the Future of Humanized Mouse Models -- Part I. Mouse genetic background and human hematopoietic stem cells biology -- Humanized Mice as Models for Human Disease -- Role of mouse innate immunity in immunodeficient mice for xenotransplantation -- Mouse genetic background and human hematopoietic stem cells biology; tips for humanization -- Biology of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Xenotransplantation in Mice -- Impact of the mouse IL-2Rg chain on lymphoid tissue development and human reconstitution in immunodeficient mice -- BM hematopoietic niche occupancy defect of HSC in scid mice -- Improvement of human multilineage hematopoietic engraftment by cytokine knockin replacement in human-hemato-lymphoid system mice -- Part II. SECTION 2: Understanding of human immune cells development and function in mouse environment -- Cytokine species-specificity and humanized mice -- Human T cell biology in a mouse environment -- Thymic education of human T cells and regulatory T cell development in humanized mice -- Human B cell development in a mouse environment -- The analysis of the functions of human B and T cells in humanized NOG mice -- NK cell development in human immune system (HIS) mice and their role in HIV pathogenesis -- Maintenance and function of human CD8+ T cells and NK cells in humanized mice -- Phenotypical and functional properties of antigen-presenting cells derived from humanized mice -- Part III: Humanized mice for HIV-1 virus biology and pathogenesis. Is it possible to address? -- Humanized mouse versus non-human primate models of HIV-1 infection -- Host factor-mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection -- Vaginal and Rectal HIV Transmission in Humanized Mice -- Oral HIV-1 Transmission in BLT Humanized Mice -- Selective infection of CD4+ memory T cells -- Development and function of human CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in humanized mouse and HIV-1 infection -- Role of TLR signaling in HIV-1-induced adaptive immune activation -- Latent HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T cells: Testing approaches to overcome HIV latency -- Brain HIV-1 infection modeling in humanized mice -- Part IV. Humanized mice for HIV-1-specific adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses -- Antibody-based protection against HIV infection -- B-cell responses in humanized mice:℗ the glass is half full -- Part V. Therapeutics developments for HIV-1 -- Species similarities and differences in pharmacokinetics and distribution of antiretroviral drugs -- Anti-Retroviral Treatment Testing in HIV-Infected Humanized Mice -- Humanized Mice as a Platform for the Development of Long-Acting Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy -- Targeted delivery of aptamers and siRNAs for HIV prevention and therapies in humanized mice -- Zinc finger nuclease editing of hematopoietic stem cells as an anti-HIV therapy -- Hematopoietic progenitor cell transduction by a unique short hairpin RNA to chemokine receptor 5 -- Cell-based approaches for treating HIV infection -- A conditionally replicating human immunodeficiency virus in BRG-HIS mice -- Part VI.℗ New models for other human-specific or human selective pathogens -- Dual reconstituted mice for hepatotropic pathogens -- Dengue viral pathogenesis and immune responses in humanized mice -- HIV-1 and TB: How Humanized Mice Can Help -- Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Humanized Mice -- HTLV-1 infection of humanized NOD/SCID IL2 gc-/- and BALB/c-Rag2-/-gc-/- mouse models -- Plasmodium falciparum parasite development in humanized mice: liver and blood stages -- Part VII. New horizons in mouse humanization -- The Future is NOW for Humanized Mouse Models
    Abstract: Over the last several years the field of humanized mice has matured and developed into an essential component of translational℗ research for HIV/AIDS. Humanized mice serve both as vehicles for discovery and as highly sophisticated platforms for biomedical research. In addition, humanized mice have demonstrated outstanding potential for the investigation of critical aspects of the infection and pathogenesis of the hepatitis and herpes viruses, as well as highly relevant microbial infections such as tuberculosis and malaria. Humanized Mice for HIV Research provides a comprehensive presentation of the history, evolution, applications, and current state of the art of this unique animal model.℗ As an expansion of twelve review articles that were published in Humanized Mice by Springer in 2008 (Eds: Nomura T, Watanabe T, Habu S), this book expertly captures the outstanding progress that has been made in the development, improvement, implementation, and validation of humanized mouse models. The first two℗ parts of this book cover the basics of human-to-mouse xenotransplantation biology, and provide critical information about human immune cell development and function based on individual models created from different immunodeficient strains of mice. The third and fourth℗ parts investigate HIV-1 biology, including different routes of transmission, prevention, treatment, pathogenesis, and the development of adaptive immunity in humanized mice. The fifth℗ part shows the broad applicability of humanized mice for therapeutic development, from long-acting antiretroviral combinations to genetic manipulations with human cells and cell-based approaches. The sixth℗ part includes liver tissue engineering and the expansion of humanized mice for many other human cell-tropic pathogens. ℗ About the Editors The Editors have well-documented track records in each of the subject areas covered, including HIV neuropathogenesis and therapeutics (Larisa Y. Poluektova, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, USA), developing novel humanized mouse models and pioneering applications for HIV transmission, prevention, persistency and eradication℗ (J. Victor Garcia, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA), retrovirology and host restriction factors (Yoshio Koyanagi, Center for Human Retrovirus Research, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Japan), hematopoiesis and cytokine transgenic expression (Markus G. Manz, Division of Hematology, University Hospital Z©ơrich, Switzerland), and developing adaptive immunity to HIV in humanized mice (Andrew M. Tager, Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, USA).℗
    Pages: XXI, 538 p. 54 illus., 45 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493916559
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 143 (1970), S. 225-254 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear Reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 119 (1968), S. 609-640 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1173
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Nagel-Patella-Syndrom ; Onychodysplasie ; Skelettanomalien ; Mikroproteinurie ; Key words Nail-patella syndrome (HOOD) ; Onychodysplasia ; Skeletal anomalies ; Microproteinuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The nail-patella syndrome (NPS), also known as hereditary onychoosteodysplasia (HOOD), is a hereditary disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance involving nails, bones and other tissues. It is characterized by onchodysplasia of the finger nails (most prominent on the thumb and index finger) and V-shaped lunulae. Extraosseous manifestations include ocular (glaucoma, microcornea) and renal involvement (proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome). A variety of skeletal anomalies can be observed. We report a 59 year old male with NPS. In addition to dysplastic patellae and elbow joints and the pathognomonic posterior iliacal horns, he had involvement of humerus, radius, ulna, and finger bones, leading to early and painful degenerative changes. Furthermore, microproteinuria was noted. Early diagnosis of NPS is important to prevent early secondary arthrosis and severe renal damage.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das autosomal dominant vererbte Nagel-Patella-Syndrom (NPS) ist durch Nagelveränderungen und eine Vielzahl ossärer und extraossärer Fehlbildungen charakterisiert. An den Fingernägeln zeigen sich eine von radial nach ulnar abnehmende Onychodystrophie und V-förmige Lunulae. Die extraossären Manifestationen betreffen Augen (Glaukom, Mikrokornea) und Nieren (Proteinurie, nephrotisches Syndrom). Die ossären Manifestationen des NPS sind sehr vielfältig: Wir berichten über einen 59jährigen Patienten, der neben den charakteristischen dysplastischen Veränderungen an Patellae und Ellenbogengelenken sowie den pathognomonischen posterioren Iliakalhörnern weitere Sekelettanomalien und Armen aufwies, die zu frühzeitigen degenerativen Veränderungen und chronischer Schmerzsymptomatik führten. Untersuchungen und Nierenfunktion zeigten eine Mikroproteinurie bei leicht verminderter Kreatininclearance. Die frühzeitige Erkennung des NPS ist wichtig, um sekundären Arthrosen und der Entwicklung schwerer renaler Komplikationen nach Möglichkeit vorzubeugen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The level structure of Sr88has been investigated at the Karlsruhe research reactor FR2 using thermal neutron capture in Sr87. A pure thermal neutron beam was obtained by Bragg reflection from a lead single crystal. The target was natural strontium which gives a cross section contribution of about 87% for the reaction Sr87(n,γ) Sr88. High resolution measurements of the capture gamma ray spectrum have been performed by means of a 4 cm2 × 0.5 cm lithium-drifted germanium diode. 146 gamma lines have been observed. Cascade relationships were studied by a double and triple coincidence apparatus containing 4″Ø × 5″ NaI(Tl) crystals and XP-1040 photomultipliers. In several cases coincident background was subtracted utilizing the doublewindow technique. By application of the triple sum coincidence method capture gammas from isotopes other than the investigated Sr88 nucleus could be eliminated. Several new levels were established. A transition scheme is proposed and discussed. The neutron binding energy of Sr88 is determined to be 11111±4 keV.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The level structure of Dy165 has been investigated at the Karlsruhe research reactor using thermal neutron capture in Dy164. The target was Dy2O3 enriched to 92.71% Dy164. Neutrons were either monochromized by Bragg reflection from a lead crystal or transmitted through a bismuth single crystal filter. High-resolution measurements of the capture spectrum have been performed by means of a Ge(Li) 5-detector pair spectrometer and a Ge(Li) anti-Compton assembly. A large number of new lines has been observed. Cascade relationships were studied by using several techniques: a double coincidence apparatus with 4″ Ø×5″ NaI(Tl) detectors, a coincidence system containing a scintillation detector and a 34 cm3 Ge(Li)-diode as well as a two-parameter system involving the pair spectrometer (with NaI (Tl) as the primary detector) and a single 4″Ø×6″ NaI (Tl) counter. In the framework ofNilsson's model and simple microscopic pictures of vibrational states the results are consistent with the following spectroscopic interpretation: 0 keV, 7/2+[633]; 108.2 keV, 1/2−[521]; 184.3 keV, 5/2″[512]; 533.5 keV, 5/2″ [523]; 538.6 keV, 7/2+[633] +Q22; 570.3 keV, 5/2−[512]+Q22+1/2−[510]; 573.6 keV, 3/2− [521]+1/2−[521]+Q22; 1103.3 keV, 1/2− [521]+Q22+3/2− [521]. For comparison preliminary results are given for the isotonic nucleus Yb169.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Herz 25 (2000), S. 600-610 
    ISSN: 1615-6692
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Periphere arterielle Verschlusserkrankung ; Therapeutische Angiogenese ; Arteriogenese ; Gentransfer ; Rekombinanter Wachstumsfaktor ; Key Words Peripheral occlusive arterial disease ; Therapeutic angiogenesis ; Gene transfer ; Recombinant growth factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The identification of angiogenetic growth factors was the basis for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of occlusive vascular diseases. Therapeutic angiogenesis resulting in capillary sprouting (angiogenesis) and collateral vessel development (arteriogenesis) may be a potential alternative for patients suffering from critical limb ischemia. Extensive investigations performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated therapeutic efficacy through the enhancement of collateral growth resulting in augmented blood flow in ischemic tissues following administration of both, recombinant growth factors and genes encoding for such factors. Advantages of gene therapy strategies over the use of proteins include minimal systemic adverse effects and a slow and continuous release of the encoded angiogenic factor which may lead to a long-lasting therapeutic effect. Several uncontrolled phase-I and -IIa trials demonstrated the feasibility and safety of the use of angiogenic growth factors. However, the results of placebo-controlled and double-blind trials are needed to proove their therapeutic potential.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Identifizierung angiogener Wachstumsfaktoren ermöglichte die Entwicklung neuartiger Strategien zur Behandlung chronischer Gefäßverschlüsse. Die therapeutische Angiogenese stellt eine potentielle alternative Therapieoption für Patienten mit einer kritischen Beinischämie auf dem Boden einer Kapillaraussprossung (Angiogenese) und der Neubildung von Kollateralgefäßen (Arteriogenese) dar. In-vitro- und experimentelle In-vivo-Untersuchungen konnten die Effizienz der vermehrten Kollateralbildung und funktionellen Durchblutungsverbesserung bei der experimentellen Beinischämie sowohl für rekombinante Gefäßwachstumsfaktoren als auch für gentherapeutische Strategien nachweisen. Vorteile gentherapeutischer Strategien umfassen die Minimierung systemischer Nebenwirkungen und die langsame und kontinuierliche Freisetzung des kodierten Faktors, was einen länger anhaltenden angiogenen Effekt erlaubt. In überwiegend unkontrollierten klinischen Phase-I- und -IIa-Studien wurden die Machbarkeit und Sicherheit der Gefäßbehandlungen mit Wachstumsfaktoren gezeigt. Die Ergebnisse plazebokontrollierter und doppelblinder Studien müssen jedoch zur sicheren Beurteilung des therapeutischen Potentials abgewartet werden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Up to 30% of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty develop a renarrowing of treated vessels following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with or without stent implantation, called restenosis. Smooth muscle cell proliferation, among other mechanisms, is an important factor in restenosis leading to neointima formation and consequent arterial lumen narrowing. Cecropins are antimicrobial peptides with antiproliferative properties in mammalian cells which have been shown to suppress neointimal formation. In this investigation, a plasmid carrying the gene for pre-pro-cecropin A, complexed with new generation liposomes optimized for transfer conditions for vascular cells was delivered to the adventitia of arteries in a porcine arterial injury model using a needle injection catheter. Retention of the plasmid in treated arteries was demonstrated for at least 21 days following delivery. Whereas previous experiments using first generation liposomes demonstrated significant but not complete neointima inhibition, the use of new liposomes under optimized conditions resulted in almost total suppression of neointimal proliferation. Thus, in vivo gene transfer of cecropins may be therapeutically applicable in restenosis prevention.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Human recombinant TGF-/32 was prepared and crystallized as described earlier12. Table 1 describes data collection, structure solution and refinement of the TGF-/32 structure. The TGF-/32 monomer is a flat, elongated and slightly bent molecule with an overall size of 60x20x15 A3. The unusual monomer ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] We report here the evolution of ankyrin repeat (AR) proteins in vitro for specific, high-affinity target binding. Using a consensus design strategy, we generated combinatorial libraries of AR proteins of varying repeat numbers with diversified binding surfaces. Libraries of two and three repeats, ...
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