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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-09
    Description: Objective To assess the impact of adjunctive antibiotic therapy on uncomplicated skin abscesses. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study selection A BMJ Rapid Recommendation panel provided input on design, important outcomes and the interpretation of the results. Eligible randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included a comparison of antibiotics against no antibiotics or a comparison of different antibiotics in patients with uncomplicated skin abscesses, and reported outcomes prespecified by the linked guideline panel. Review methods Reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We performed random-effects meta-analyses that compared antibiotics with no antibiotics, along with a limited number of prespecified subgroup hypotheses. We also performed network meta-analysis with a Bayesian framework to compare effects of different antibiotics. Quality of evidence was assessed with The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Fourteen RCTs including 4198 patients proved eligible. Compared with no antibiotics, antibiotics probably lower the risk of treatment failure (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90; low quality), recurrence within 1 month (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.77; moderate quality), hospitalisation (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.94; moderate quality) and late recurrence (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.85; moderate quality). However, relative to no use, antibiotics probably increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX): OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.58; moderate quality; clindamycin: OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.88; high quality) and diarrhoea (clindamycin: OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.50 to 4.89; high quality). Cephalosporins did not reduce the risk of treatment failure compared with placebo (moderate quality). Conclusions In patients with uncomplicated skin abscesses, moderate-to-high quality evidence suggests TMP-SMX or clindamycin confer a modest benefit for several important outcomes, but this is offset by a similar risk of adverse effects. Clindamycin has a substantially higher risk of diarrhoea than TMP-SMX. Cephalosporins are probably not effective.
    Keywords: Open access, Infectious diseases
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Diagnosis of systemicCandida infections was attempted by the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) to detect IgG antibodies towards cell wall-bound and cytoplasmic candidal antigens. Cell wall antigens were sequentially solubilized by treatment of germinated blastoconidia ofCandida albicans (ATCC 26555 strain) with β-mercaptoethanol (βME extract) and digestion with Zymolyase 20T, a β-glucanase preparation (Zymolyase extract). Protoplasts obtained after treatment with Zymolyase were osmotically lysed (cytoplasmic antigens). Sera were obtained from patients with systemic (n=28) and superficial (n=46) candidiasis. Control sera were obtained from normal healthy individuals (n=31) and from hospitalized patients at low (n=36) and at high (n=13) risk of developing systemic candidiasis yet showing no symptoms of candidal infection. Detection of antibodies in crude sera samples by EIA using all of these antigenic extracts was highly specific (98–100 %), but sensitivity of the method was low (3.5–17.8 %). However, adsorption of sera with latex microspheres coated with purifiedCandida mannan in order to selectively remove antimannan antibodies prior to EIA improved the diagnostic efficiency of this test. Improvement was particularly noticeable when the βME extract was used as antigenic preparation, yielding a sensitivity of 89.2 % and a specificity of 98.6 %.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0142-2421
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A multilayer insulator-metal-insulator capacitive structure was realized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition for a discharge frequency of 35 kHz. The chosen materials were amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride as the insulator and tungsten as the metal. An interlayer of tungsten silicide used as an adhesion layer is deposited between W and a-SiNx:H. An AES depth profiling study coupled with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation showed the presence of interphases: the interfacial zone between a-SiNx:H and W is constituted by a WNx interphase ∼10 nm deep. Small crystallites are observed in tungsten-based materials. The presence of a mixed phase containing tungsten, silicon, nitrogen and a small amount of oxygen is obvious and noticed on the AES spectra at the WSix/a-SiNx:H interface: its thickness appears to be ∼7 nm.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0138-4988
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Life Sciences (general)
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This review deals with different aspects concerning the genus Thiobacillus as an obligat chemoautotroph able to oxidize reduced anorganic sulphur compounds. There are given the following topics: physiology of the genus (nutritional requirements, enzymatic complexes for sulphur oxidation, energy generation, reductive CO2 assimilation and growing in presence of organic compounds).The ecological significance of Thiobacilli in the sulphur cycle in Nature is presented. The industrial applications of Thiobacilli in respect to the leaching processes that allow the recovery of metals through oxidation and solubilization from low-grade ores are discussed, with special reference to copper and uranium. A critical revision is done of acid mine drainage impact on the environment, and the use of adequate countermeasures is stressed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: RFLPs ; Septoria tritici ; DNA fingerprinting ; Genetic variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A set of probes that detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear DNA has been developed for genetic studies of the phytopathogenic fungus Septoria tritici. Two plasmid libraries containing 0.5–1.3 or 1.3–2.4 kb fragments of S. tritici nuclear DNA were constructed. Seventeen random clones from each library were used as probes to screen for RFLP variation among a geographically-diverse group of six S. tritici isolates. Among the 196 probe-enzyme combinations tested, 145 detected RFLPs among the six isolates. The restriction enzymes EcoRV and PstI detected RFLPs most efficiently. Three probes detected deletions. A ribosomal DNA probe from yeast did not detect a significant amount of variation. These probes will be useful for studying genetic variation, population genetics, and genome organization of S. tritici.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Genetic linkage mapping ; Segregation distortion ; RAPD ; RFLP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The inheritance of DNA markers was investigated in 27 F2 progeny from a single F1 hybrid derived from a wide cross inUromyces appendiculatus. This cross was unusual because asexual spores were used to fertilize sexual fruiting structures. Sixty percent of the DNA markers failed to segregate according to simple Mendelian ratios. Segregation bias was evident, in that F2 progeny inherited on average 91 % of maternal bands and 52% of paternal bands, which deviates significantly from the expected value for each of 75% for dominant markers. Because of these distortions, linkage mapping was not possible with this population. Evaluation of two F1s from a second wide cross, reciprocals obtained by normal fertilization, also showed non-Mendelian inheritance of one of three co-dominant RFLPs and five of six isozyme markers, indicating that the method of crossing was probably not responsible for the abnormal segregation patterns in the first cross. Either genetic incompatibility, similar to that of an interspecific cross, or selection of particular genotypes could explain the genetic anomalies reported here.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Chromosome walking ; Gene mapping ; Glycine max ; Heterodera glycines ; High-molecular-weight DNA ; Positional cloning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for soybean (Glycine max) consisting of approximately 30 000 clones with an average insert size of 120 kilobase pairs. The library was successfully screened with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and microsatellite markers tightly linked to a major resistance gene for the cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Since many soybean RFLPs hybridize to duplicate loci, BACs homologous to duplicate RFLP loci were distinguished by digestion with the restriction enzyme originally used to map the RFLP, followed by a comparison of the hybridizing fragments. Linkage mapping of BAC clones identified with markers linked to the cyst nematode resistance gene demonstrated that these clones were located at the expected chromosomal positions and that there were no indications of chimeras within the genomic inserts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: “Slime” variant ; Neurospora ; Chitosomes ; Chitin synthetase ; Secretory vesicles ; Invertase ; Phosphatase ; Membranes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cells from the “slime” variant of Neurospora crassa were broken in isotonic conditions by use of triethanolamine buffer plus EDTA. After removal of large membranous structures by low-speed centrifugation, chitosomes and secretory vesicles were separated by means of gel filtration, precipitation of membranous contaminants with Concanavalin A, and centrifugation in sucrose or glycerol gradients. Polypeptidic composition of fractions enriched in secretory vesicles or chitosomes was found to be distinct. By these criteria we concluded that chitosomes and secretory vesicles represent different populations of microvesicles. Both microvesicular populations appeared free of endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar contaminants as demonstrated by determination of appropriate enzymatic markers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Neurospora crassa ; “Slime” variant ; Cell coat ; Exocellular proteins ; Glycoproteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cells of the “slime” strain of Neurospora crassa synthesize a coherent extracellular material which remains attached to the cell surface, but is released into the liquid medium by shaking. The material was purified and studied by different criteria. By electron microscopy it appears as long wavy sheets which strongly bind concanavalin A, but not wheat germ agglutinin, and maintain their integrity in the absence of structural polysaccharides. Analysis of the purified material revealed that it was free of contaminating membranes; it contained more than 70% protein, 1% neutral sugars (glucose, mannose, fucose and galactose), less than 2% lipids and ca. 4% not-characterized hexosaminelike compounds. Its polypeptide pattern as determined by PAGE was complex. The significance of this material is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Neurospora crassa ‘Slime” variant ; Cell coat ; Glycoproteins ; Self-assembling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The proteinaceous extracellular material (PEM) synthesized by the cells of the ‘slime” strain of Neurospora crassa (see Martinez et al. 1989) was solubilized by treatment with urea or guanidine. Removal of these chemicals by dialysis, caused reassembly of the solubilized proteins into material with the same microscopic appearance as the original PEM. Polypeptide patterns from both native and reassembled structures were identical. Dialysis-mediated reassembly of the solubilized proteins appeared to be dependent on both concentration of the soluble macromolecules and time. Gel chromatography of PEM solubilized with different agents revealed two discrete populations of complexes with molecular masses of 1,500 and 500 kDa respectively. These were able to reassemble into lamellar structures with a variable degree of efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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