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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : : Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research,
    In: Springer eBooks
    Type of Medium: Online Resource
    Pages: digital
    ISBN: 9783642133992
    Language: English
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0665
    Keywords: 03E35 ; 06E99
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The countable sequences of cardinals which arise as cardinal sequences of superatomic Boolean algebras were characterized by La Grange on the basis of ZFC set theory. However, no similar characterization is available for uncountable cardinal sequences. In this paper we prove the following two consistency results: (1) Ifθ = 〈κ α :α 〈ω 1〉 is a sequence of infinite cardinals, then there is a cardinal-preserving notion of forcing that changes cardinal exponentiation and forces the existence of a superatomic Boolean algebraB such that θ is the cardinal sequence ofB. (2) Ifκ is an uncountable cardinal such thatκ 〈κ =κ andθ = 〈κ α :α 〈κ +〉 is a cardinal sequence such thatκ α ≥κ for everyα 〈κ + andκ α =κ for everyα 〈κ + such that cf(α)〈κ, then there is a cardinal-preserving notion of forcing that changes cardinal exponentiation and forces the existence of a superatomic Boolean algebraB such that θ is the cardinal sequence ofB.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0665
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract. The countable sequences of cardinals which arise as cardinal sequences of superatomic Boolean algebras were characterized by La Grange on the basis of ZFC set theory. However, no similar characterization is available for uncountable cardinal sequences. In this paper we prove the following two consistency results: (1) If $\theta =\langle\kappa_{\alpha}:\alpha 〈 \omega_1 \rangle$ is a sequence of infinite cardinals, then there is a cardinal-preserving notion of forcing that changes cardinal exponentiation and forces the existence of a superatomic Boolean algebra $B$ such that $\theta$ is the cardinal sequence of $B$ . (2) If $\kappa$ is an uncountable cardinal such that $\kappa^{〈 \kappa} = \kappa$ and $\theta = \langle\kappa_{\alpha}:\alpha 〈 \kappa^+ \rangle$ is a cardinal sequence such that $\kappa_{\alpha} \geq\kappa$ for every $\alpha 〈 \kappa^+$ and $\kappa_{\alpha} =\kappa$ for every $\alpha 〈 \kappa^+$ such that $\mbox{cf}(\alpha) 〈 \kappa$ , then there is a cardinal-preserving notion of forcing that changes cardinal exponentiation and forces the existence of a superatomic Boolean algebra $B$ such that $\theta$ is the cardinal sequence of $B$ .
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-04-18
    Description: Clustering algorithms are necessary in Wireless Sensor Networks to reduce the energy consumption of the overall nodes. The decision of which nodes are the cluster heads (CHs) greatly affects the network performance. The centralized clustering algorithms rely on a sink or Base Station (BS) to select the CHs. To do so, the BS requires extensive data from the nodes, which sometimes need complex hardware inside each node or a significant number of control messages. Alternatively, the nodes in distributed clustering algorithms decide about which the CHs are by exchanging information among themselves. Both centralized and distributed clustering algorithms usually alternate the nodes playing the role of the CHs to dynamically balance the energy consumption among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a distributed approach to form the clusters dynamically, but it is occasionally supported by the Base Station. In particular, the Base Station sends three messages during the network lifetime to reconfigure the s k i p value of the network. The s k i p , which stands out as the number of rounds in which the same CHs are kept, is adapted to the network status in this way. At the beginning of each group of rounds, the nodes decide about their convenience to become a CH according to a fuzzy-logic system. As a novelty, the fuzzy controller is as a Tagaki–Sugeno–Kang model and not a Mandami-one as other previous proposals. The clustering algorithm has been tested in a wide set of scenarios, and it has been compared with other representative centralized and distributed fuzzy-logic based algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering method is able to extend the network operability.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-09-11
    Description: The cancer stem cell hypothesis states that tumors are maintained by a small subpopulation of stem-like cells, often called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated cells, which comprise the bulk of the tumor. In addition, CSCs are resistant to conventional therapy, which suggests that they are responsible for tumor relapse. This has led researchers to increase efforts to develop directed therapies against CSCs. However, some experiments in mice have shown that the elimination of CSCs might not ensure tumor eradication. This may be due to different events, such as residual CSCs after treatment, the plasticity of cells within the tumor, the presence of different CSCs having their own hierarchy within the same tumor, and the ability of more differentiated cells to maintain the disease, among others. Trying to decipher this complexity may benefit from dissecting the whole in its parts. Here, we hypothesize that tumor relapse after the selective targeting of CSCs may be due to intermediate progenitor (P) cells that can maintain the tumor volume. In order to support the hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical model derived using pseudo-reactions representing the events of each cell subpopulation within the tumor. We aimed to test if a minimal unidirectional hierarchical model consisting of CSCs, P, and terminally differentiated (D) cells could be adjusted to experimental data for selective CSC targeting. We further evaluated therapies ranging from nonselective to specifically directed and combination therapy. We found that selective killing of the CSC compartment has a delaying effect on the overall exponential tumor growth, but was not able to eliminate the disease. We show that therapy that targets both CSCs and intermediate progenitor (P) cells with a sufficient capacity to proliferate and differentiate could represent a more efficient treatment option for tumor depletion. Testing this hypothesis in vivo may allow us to discriminate within the array of possibilities of tumor relapse, and further open the idea of combination therapy against different subpopulations of tumor cells instead of segregating CSCs and bulk tumor cells.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-6694
    Topics: Medicine
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