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  • 1
    Keywords: 3-aminobenzanthrone, 3-nitrobenzanthrone, ACTIVATION, ADDUCTS, animals, Benz(a)Anthracenes, biotrans
    Abstract: 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) is the metabolite of the carcinogenic air pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). 3-ABA was investigated for its ability to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in kidney and lung of rats, and for the influence of such induction on DNA adduct formation by 3-ABA and 3-NBA. NQO1 is the enzyme that reduces 3-NBA to N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) and CYP1A enzymes oxidize 3-ABA to the same intermediate. When activated by cytosolic and and/or microsomal fractions isolated from rat lung, the target organ for 3-NBA carcinogenicity, and kidney, both compounds generated the same DNA-adduct pattern, consisting of five adducts. When pulmonary cytosols isolated from rats that had been treated i.p. with 40 mg/kg bw of 3-ABA were incubated with 3-NBA, DNA adduct formation was up to 1.7-fold higher than in incubations with cytosols from control animals. This increase corresponded to an increase in protein level and enzymatic activity of NQO1. In contrast, no induction of NQO1 expression by 3-ABA treatment was found in the kidney. Incubations of 3-ABA with renal and pulmonary microsomes of 3-ABA-treated rats led to an increase of up to a 4.5-fold in DNA-adduct formation relative to controls. The stimulation of DNA-adduct formation correlated with a higher protein expression and activity of CYP1A1 induced by 3-ABA. These results show that by inducing lung and kidney CYP1A1 and NQO1, 3-ABA increases its own enzymatic activation as well as that of the environmental pollutant, 3-NBA, thereby enhancing the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of both compounds
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19398038
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  • 2
    Keywords: DNA ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; ADDUCTS ; CARCINOGENS ; METABOLITE ; DEOXYGUANOSINE ; Environmental Pollutants
    Abstract: An aromatic amine, o-anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) and its oxidative counterpart, 2-nitroanisole (2-methoxynitrobenzene), are the industrial and environmental pollutants causing tumors of the urinary bladder in rats and mice. Both carcinogens are activated to the same proximate carcinogenic metabolite, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, which spontaneously decomposes to nitrenium and/or carbenium ions responsible for formation of deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA in vitro and in vivo. In other words, generation of N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is responsible for the genotoxic mechanisms of the o-anisidine and 2-nitroanisole carcinogenicity. Analogous enzymes of human and rat livers are capable of activating these carcinogens. Namely, human and rat cytochorme P4502E1 is the major enzyme oxidizing o-anisidine to N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, while xanthine oxidase of both species reduces 2-nitroanisole to this metabolite. Likewise, O-demethylation of 2-nitroanisole, which is the detoxication pathway of its metabolism, is also catalyzed by the same human and rat enzyme, cytochorme P450 2E1. The results demonstrate that the rat is a suitable animal model mimicking the fate of both carcinogens in humans and suggest that both compounds are potential carcinogens also for humans.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21217841
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  • 3
    Keywords: INHIBITOR ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SYSTEM ; liver ; ENZYMES ; METABOLISM ; DNA ; LIVER-MICROSOMES ; RAT ; SUDAN-I ; AROMATIC-AMINES ; ASSAY ; mass spectrometry ; MODULATION ; EFFICIENT ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; CYTOCHROME-P-450 ; INHIBITORS ; CHEMISTRY ; RE ; SUBSTRATE ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; ENZYME ; MASS ; rodents ; USA ; FREE-RADICALS ; TOBACCO-SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES ; animal ; GENOTOXIC MECHANISM
    Abstract: We investigated the ability of hepatic microsomes from rat and rabbit to metabolize 2-methoxyaniline (o-anisidine), an industrial and environmental pollutant and a bladder carcinogen for rodents. Using HPLC combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we determined that o-anisidine is oxidized by microsomes of both species to N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, o-aminophenol, and one additional metabolite, the exact structure of which has not been identified as yet. N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is either further oxidized to 2-methoxynitrosobenzene (o-nitrosoanisole) or reduced to parental o-anisidine, which can be oxidized again to produce o-aminophenol. To define the role of microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450) in o-anisidine metabolism, we investigated the modulation of this metabolism by specific inducers and selective inhibitors of these enzymes. The results of the studies suggest that o-anisidine is a promiscuous substrate of P450s of rat and rabbit liver; because P450s of 1A, 2B, 2E, and 3A subfamilies metabolize o-anisidine in hepatic microsomes of both studied species. Using purified enzymes of rat and rabbit (P450s 1A1, 1A2, 2B2, 2B4, 2E1, 2C3, 3A1, and 3A6), reconstituted with NADPH:P450 reductase, the ability of P450s 1A1, 1A2, 2B2, 2B4, 2E1, and 3A6 to metabolize o-anisidine was confirmed. In the reconstituted P450 system, rabbit P450 2E1 was the most efficient enzyme metabolizing o-anisidine. The data demonstrate the participation of different rat and rabbit P450s in o-anisidine metabolism and indicate that both experimental animal species might serve as suitable models to mimic the fate of o-anisidine in human
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18624415
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  • 4
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), a component of endoplasmic reticulum membrane, plays a role in modulation of activity of several cytochromes P450 (CYP). To elucidate the mechanism of such modulations it is necessary to evaluate not only the effect of native cyt b5, but also that of apo-cyt b5. To prepare apo-cyt b5, heme transfer from native cyt b5 to a protein with higher affinity toward the heme, the horse heart apo-myoglobin, was utilized. METHODS: Butanone extraction was employed to prepare apo-myoglobin. Apo-cyt b5 was separated from myoglobin by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry was utilized to characterize proteins eluted from DEAE- Sepharose. RESULTS: The prepared apo-myoglobin was incubated with the cyt b5 at pH 4.2 that is the optimal pH for heme transfer from cyt b5 into apo-myoglobin. The apo-cyt b5 protein was separated from myoglobin present in the reaction mixture by chromatography on a column of DEAE-Sepharose. Using such a procedure, 16% yield of apo-cyt b5 that did not contain any heme in its molecule was obtained from the native rabbit cyt b5. Oxidized and reduced forms of the apo-b5 reconstituted with heme exhibit the same absorbance spectra as native cyt b5. The prepared apo-cyt b5 reconstituted with heme can receive electrons from NADPH:CYP reductase. CONCLUSION: A biologically active apo-cyt b5 was prepared using transfer of heme from cyt b5 to horse heart apo-myoglobin by the procedure described here.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20027148
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  • 5
    Keywords: liver ; METABOLISM ; LIVER-MICROSOMES ; SUDAN-I ; BINDING ; ACID ; IDENTIFICATION ; SWEDEN ; OXIDATION ; cytochrome P450 ; INHIBITORS ; RABBIT ; SEPARATION ; CYTOCHROMES P450 ; GENOTOXIC MECHANISM ; 2-Nitroanisole ; 2-Nitrophenol ; 1A1 ; OXIDATIVE DETOXICATION
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: 2-Nitrophenol (2-NP) is the major detoxification metabolite of an important industrial pollutant and a potent carcinogen, 2-nitroanisole (2-NA). Characterization of the products of 2-NP metabolism by rat hepatic microsomes containing cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and identification of the major CYP enzymes participating in this process are aims of this study. METHODS: HPLC with UV detection was employed for the separation and characterization of 2-NP metabolites. Inducers and inhibitors of CYPs and rat recombinant CYPs were used to characterize the enzymes participating in 2-NP oxidation. RESULTS: Rat hepatic microsomes oxidize 2-NP to its hydroxylated metabolite, 2,5-dihydroxynitrobenzene (2,5-DNB). No nitroreductive metabolism leading to the formation of o-aminophenol was evident when using rat hepatic microsomes. Selective CYP inhibitors and hepatic microsomes of rats pre-treated with specific CYP inducers were used to characterize CYPs oxidizing 2-NP in rat livers. Based on these studies, we attribute most of 2-NP oxidation in rat liver to CYP2E1 and 3A, followed by CYP2D and 2C. Among recombinant rat CYP enzymes tested in this study, CYP2E1 and 2C11 were the most effective enzymes oxidizing 2-NP. Oxidation of 2-NP by rat CYP2E1 exhibits the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, having the Km value of 0.35 mM. CONCLUSION: The results found in this study, the first report on the metabolism of 2-NP by rat hepatic microsomes and rat CYP enzymes, demonstrate that CYP2E1 is the major enzyme oxidizing this compound in rat liver.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20027144
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  • 6
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; EXPOSURE ; MICE ; SPECTROSCOPY ; BLADDER ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; CARCINOGEN ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; P-32-postlabeling ; PERSISTENCE ; o-anisidine ; TOBACCO-SPECIFIC NITROSAMINES ; GENOTOXIC MECHANISM ; N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine ; AMINES ; POST-LABELING ANALYSIS ; structure of DNA adducts
    Abstract: 2-Methoxyaniline (o-anisidine) is an industrial and environmental pollutant causing tumors of urinary bladder in rodents. Here, we investigated the formation and persistence of DNA adducts in the Wistar rat. Using the P-32-postlabeling method, three o-anisidine-derived DNA adducts were found in several organs of rats treated with a total dose of 0.53 mg o-anisidine/kg body wt (0.15, 0.18, and 0.2 mg/kg body wt ip in the first, second, and third day, respectively), of which the urinary bladder had the highest levels. At four posttreatment times (1 day, 13 days, 10 weeks, and 36 weeks), DNA adducts in bladder, liver, kidney, and spleen of rats were analyzed to study their persistence. In all time points, the highest total adduct levels were found in urinary bladder (39 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides after 1 day and 15 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides after 36 weeks) where 39% adducts remained. In contrast to the urinary bladder, no persistence was detected in other organs. All three DNA adducts were identified as deoxyguanosine adducts. When deoxyguanosine was reacted with the oxidative metabolite of o-anisidine, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, three adducts could be separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and were identified by mass spectroscopy and/or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. All adducts are products of the nitrenium/carbenium ions, the reactive species generated from N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine. The major adduct was identified to be N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-methoxyaniline. Using cochromatography on HPLC, this adduct was found to be identical to the major adduct generated by activation of o-anisidine in vitro and in vivo
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22403159
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  • 7
    Abstract: Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with the balance of the endocrine system by mimicking or antagonising the effects of endogenous hormones, by altering the synthesis and metabolism of natural hormones, or by modifying hormone receptor levels. The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are exogenous EDs whereas the estrogenic hormone 17beta-estradiol is a natural endogenous ED. Although the biological effects of these individual EDs have partially been studied previously, their toxicity when acting in combination has not yet been investigated. Here we treated Wistar rats with BaP, EE2 and estradiol alone or in combination and studied the influence of EE2 and estradiol on: (i) the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 in rat liver on the transcriptional and translational levels; (ii) the inducibility of these CYP enzymes by BaP in this rat organ; (iii) the formation of BaP-DNA adducts in rat liver in vivo; and (iv) the generation of BaP-induced DNA adducts after activation of BaP with hepatic microsomes of rats exposed to BaP, EE2 and estradiol and with recombinant rat CYP1A1 in vitro. BaP acted as a strong and moderate inducer of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in rat liver, respectively, whereas EE2 or estradiol alone had no effect on the expression of these enzymes. However, when EE2 was administered to rats together with BaP, it significantly decreased the potency of BaP to induce CYP1A1 and 1B1 gene expression. For EE2, but not estradiol, this also correlated with a reduction of BaP-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activity in rat hepatic microsomes. Further, while EE2 and estradiol did not form covalent adducts with DNA, they affected BaP-derived DNA adduct formations in vivo and in vitro. The observed decrease in BaP-DNA adduct levels in rat liver in vivo resulted from the inhibition of CYP1A1-mediated BaP bioactivation by EE2 and estradiol. Our results indicate that BaP genotoxicity mediated through its activation by CYP1A1 in rats in vivo is modulated by estradiol and its synthetic derivative EE2.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29649501
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  • 8
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; liver ; ENZYMES ; METABOLISM ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; LIVER-MICROSOMES ; RAT ; HPLC ; BINDING ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; mass spectrometry ; SPECTROMETRY ; DNA-BINDING ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; KINETICS ; OXIDATION ; detoxication ; cytochrome P450 ; INHIBITORS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; CHEMISTRY ; CARCINOGEN ; P-32-postlabeling ; P-32-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS ; ANTICANCER DRUG ELLIPTICINE ; GENOTOXIC MECHANISM ; Lead ; Species ; 2-Nitroanisole ; 2-Nitrophenol ; Detoxification ; ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTANT
    Abstract: 2-Nitrophenol (2-NP) is the major detoxification metabolite of an important industrial pollutant and a potent carcinogen, 2-nitroanisole (2-NA). Here, we characterized the product of 2-NP metabolism catalyzed by human, rat, rabbit and mouse hepatic microsomes containing cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and identified the major human CYP enzymes participating in this process. The 2-NP metabolite was characterized by mass spectrometry and co-chromatography on HPLC with a synthetic standard, 2,5-dihydroxynitrobenzene (2,5-DNB) to be 2,5-DNB. No nitroreductive metabolism leading to the formation of N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) hydroxylamine or o-aminophenol was evident by all tested hepatic microsomes. Likewise, no DNA binding of 2-NP metabolite(s) measured with the P-32-postlabeling technique was detectable in hepatic microsomes. Therefore, hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes participate in 2-NP metabolism that does not lead to its activation to species binding to DNA. Selective inhibitors of human CYPs were used to characterize CYPs oxidizing 2-NP in human livers. Based on these inhibitory studies, we attribute most of 2-NP oxidation in human liver to CYP2E1, 3A4, 2A6, 2C and 2D6. Among recombinant human CYP enzymes tested in this study, CYP2E1, 2A6 and 2B6 were the most effective enzymes oxidizing 2-NP. Oxidation of 2-NP by human CYP2E1 exhibits the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, having the K-m value of 0.21 mM. The results found in this study, the first report on the metabolism of 2-NP by human hepatic microsomes and human CYP enzymes, demonstrate that CYP2E1 is the major enzyme oxidizing this compound in human
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 9
    Keywords: molecular biology ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; USA
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 10
    Keywords: OPTIMIZATION
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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