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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Schizophrenia ; PET ; Neuroleptics ; Dopamine receptors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between the daily oral dose of the benzamide amisulpride and the striatal D2-dopamine receptors occupancy was investigated in 11 schizophrenic patients using positron emission tomography with76Br-bromolisuride. The patients were studied before and during chronic treatment with amisulpride over a wide range of doses. The test-retest variability of the method was estimated to be 5.8% in a group of four patients receiving placebo. A curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between the amisulpride doses and the D2-receptor occupancy. A range of 70–80% occupancy of the striatal D2 receptors, suggested as an optimal interval for therapeutic action on positive psychotic symptoms, was obtained with doses of amisulpride ranging between 630 and 910 mg per day, while an occupancy of 85%, suggested to be associated with pronounced extrapyramidal side-effects, was reached with 1100 mg per day.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-31
    Description: Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability? Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability?, Published online: 30 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0222-7 Epigenetic variance in dopamine D2 receptor: a marker of IQ malleability?
    Electronic ISSN: 2158-3188
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: A comprehensive account of the causes of alcohol misuse must accommodate individual differences in biology, psychology and environment, and must disentangle cause and effect. Animal models can demonstrate the effects of neurotoxic substances; however, they provide limited insight into the psycho-social and higher cognitive factors involved in the initiation of substance use and progression to misuse. One can search for pre-existing risk factors by testing for endophenotypic biomarkers in non-using relatives; however, these relatives may have personality or neural resilience factors that protect them from developing dependence. A longitudinal study has potential to identify predictors of adolescent substance misuse, particularly if it can incorporate a wide range of potential causal factors, both proximal and distal, and their influence on numerous social, psychological and biological mechanisms. Here we apply machine learning to a wide range of data from a large sample of adolescents (n = 692) to generate models of current and future adolescent alcohol misuse that incorporate brain structure and function, individual personality and cognitive differences, environmental factors (including gestational cigarette and alcohol exposure), life experiences, and candidate genes. These models were accurate and generalized to novel data, and point to life experiences, neurobiological differences and personality as important antecedents of binge drinking. By identifying the vulnerability factors underlying individual differences in alcohol misuse, these models shed light on the aetiology of alcohol misuse and suggest targets for prevention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486207/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486207/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whelan, Robert -- Watts, Richard -- Orr, Catherine A -- Althoff, Robert R -- Artiges, Eric -- Banaschewski, Tobias -- Barker, Gareth J -- Bokde, Arun L W -- Buchel, Christian -- Carvalho, Fabiana M -- Conrod, Patricia J -- Flor, Herta -- Fauth-Buhler, Mira -- Frouin, Vincent -- Gallinat, Juergen -- Gan, Gabriela -- Gowland, Penny -- Heinz, Andreas -- Ittermann, Bernd -- Lawrence, Claire -- Mann, Karl -- Martinot, Jean-Luc -- Nees, Frauke -- Ortiz, Nick -- Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure -- Paus, Tomas -- Pausova, Zdenka -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Robbins, Trevor W -- Smolka, Michael N -- Strohle, Andreas -- Schumann, Gunter -- Garavan, Hugh -- IMAGEN Consortium -- MH082116/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P20 GM103644/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P20GM103644/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 DA036114/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P50DA036114/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):185-9. doi: 10.1038/nature13402. Epub 2014 Jul 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA [2] Department of Psychology, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. ; Department of Radiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA. ; Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA [2] Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA. ; 1] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM CEA Unit 1000 "Imaging &Psychiatry", University Paris Sud, 91400 Orsay, France [2] Department of Psychiatry, Orsay Hospital, 4 place du General Leclerc, 91400 Orsay, France. ; Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68159 Mannheim, Germany. ; Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. ; Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] Department of Systems Neuroscience, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany [2] Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; 1] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK [2] Department of Psychiatry, Universite de Montreal, CHU Ste Justine Hospital, Montreal H3T 1C5, Canada. ; 1] Department of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 68159 Mannheim, Germany [2] Department of Addictive Behaviour and Addiction Medicine, Heidelberg University, 68159 Mannheim, Germany. ; 14 CEA, DSV, I2BM, Neurospin bat 145, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. ; 1] Department of Systems Neuroscience, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany [2] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charite Mitte, Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Department of Psychiatry and Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universitat Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany. ; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charite Mitte, Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin 10117, Germany. ; Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 10587 Berlin, Germany. ; School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. ; 1] Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM CEA Unit 1000 "Imaging &Psychiatry", University Paris Sud, 91400 Orsay, France [2] AP-HP Department of Adolescent Psychopathology and Medicine, Maison de Solenn, University Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA [2] Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charite Mitte, Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin 10117, Germany [2] AP-HP Department of Adolescent Psychopathology and Medicine, Maison de Solenn, University Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France. ; 1] Rotman Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5R 0A3, Canada [2] Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, H3A 2B4, Canada. ; The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. ; 1] Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK [2] MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre, London, London WC2R 2LS, UK. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA [2] Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA [3] Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043041" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology ; Alcoholism/genetics/prevention & control/*psychology ; Artificial Intelligence ; Brain/physiology ; Cognition/physiology ; Environment ; Humans ; Life Change Events ; Longitudinal Studies ; *Models, Theoretical ; Personality/physiology ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Psychology ; Reproducibility of Results ; Risk Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 226 (1974), S. 391-412 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome ; Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis ; Neuraminidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report the first case of Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. This supports a common pathogenic mechanism in HUS following infections by neuraminidase-producing organisms and in pneumococcal meningitis. We recommend that HUS must be considered in cases of renal failure and/or anaemia associated with pneumococcal meningitis, and that bacterial meningitis be considered in all patients with HUS and central nervous system involvement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome ; Respiratory syncytial virus infection ; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia ; Nitric oxide ; Child
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective To report the first case of ARDS in children treated with nitric oxide (NO) inhalation. Methods A 13-months infant presented with BPD and severe hypoxemia related to RSV infection and ARDS. Inhaled NO was delivered in the ventilatory circuit of a continuous flow ventilator (Babylog 8000, Dräger) in a concentration of 20–80 ppm for 7 days. NO and NO2 were continuously monitored (Polyton Draeger). Respiratory mechanics were evaluated by using the method of passive inflation by the ventilator. Results NO inhalation improved oxygenation (tcSaO2) and reduced respiratory system resistance without affecting arterial pressure. NO2 level remained below 5 ppm, and methaemoglobin level below 1%. The child survived without neurologic sequela. Conclusions Two mechanisms to explain oxygenation improvement can be suggested:selective improvement in perfusion of ventilated regions and bronchodilation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Infectious purpura ; Purpura fulminans ; Disseminated intravascular coagulation ; Protein C ; Protein S
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We studied, in 40 children (mean age: 52 months) with severe infectious purpura, the relationships between protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) levels, and shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and outcome. We determined, on admission, PC antigen (ELISA) and activity (chromogenic test), and total PS (ELISA). Results were expressed as % of normal adult values. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS. Thirty children were in shock, 20 had DIC. All children with DIC, and 10 without DIC were in shock. Of 20 children who were in shock and had DIC, 7 died and 3 had an amputation. PC antigen was significantly decreased in shock children (p〈0.05), in children with DIC (p〈0.0005). and in non-survivors (p〈0.05). PC activity was significantly decreased in shock children (p〈0.05), in children with DIC (p〈0.0005), and in non-survivors (p〈0.005). Total PS was not decreased in shock children, but was significantly decreased in children with DIC (p〈0.005), and in non-survivors (p〈0.005). We conclude that PC and PS levels were decreased in our children, and that PC levels were significantly decreased in the presence of shock, DIC, and fatal outcome. PC and antithrombin III (AT III) supplementation, should be evaluated in children with severe infectious purpura with shock and DIC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Key words Disseminated intra-vascular coagulation ; Limb ischaemia ; Purpura fulminans ; Septic shock ; Skin necrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract More than 10% of children surviving septic shock with purpura have skin necrosis or limb ischaemia (SNLI.). Among 44 children consecutively admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit, 35 (80%) survived, 6 of them (17%) developed SNLI (defined as the need of a surgical procedure). Two timed haemostasis measurements included the determination of coagulation factors, protein C (PC), protein S (PS), C4b binding protein (C4bBP), antithrombin (AT), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Two severity scores and CRP levels were determined at admission. Children with SNLI and without SNLI were compared. On admission, severity scores, and AT, PC, PS, C4bBP levels were similar in both groups with and without SNLI. Prothrombin time (23% vs 34%; P 〈 0.01), factor VII+X (20% vs 31%; P = 0.05) and factor VII (0% vs 19%; P 〈 0.01) were lower in the group with SNLI. The 2nd sample showed no difference between the two groups. Kinetics of haemostatic abnormalities were no different between the two groups. Conclusion In this series, the only difference between the two groups was lower factor VII levels in children with skin necrosis or limb ischaemia. This suggests the benefit of tissue factor pathway inhibitor administration as an adjunctive therapy to prevent skin necrosis or limb ischaemia. Further studies including more children are needed to determine the potential effects of treatments such as protein C, antithrombin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor antibody administration, and to advocate tissue factor pathway inhibitor in preventing skin necrosis or limb ischaemia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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