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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Meso-NH Atmospheric Simulation System is a joint effort of the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques and Laboratoire d’Aérologie. It comprises several elements; a numerical model able to simulate the atmospheric motions, ranging from the large meso-alpha scale down to the micro-scale, with a comprehensive physical package, a flexible file manager, an ensemble of facilities to prepare initial states, either idealized or interpolated from meteorological analyses or forecasts, a flexible post-processing and graphical facility to visualize the results, and an ensemble of interactive procedures to control these functions. Some of the distinctive features of this ensemble are the following: the model is currently based on the Lipps and Hemler form of the anelastic system, but may evolve towards a more accurate form of the equations system. In the future, it will allow for simultaneous simulation of several scales of motion, by the so-called –interactive grid-nesting technique”. It allows for the in-line computation and accumulation of various terms of the budget of several quantities. It allows for the transport and diffusion of passive scalars, to be coupled with a chemical module. It uses the relatively new Fortran 90 compiler. It is tailored to be easily implemented on any UNIX machine. Meso-NH is designed as a research tool for small and meso-scale atmospheric processes. It is freely accessible to the research community, and we have tried to make it as –user-friendly” as possible, and as general as possible, although these two goals sometimes appear contradictory. The present paper presents a general description of the adiabatic formulation and some of the basic validation simulations. A list of the currently available physical parametrizations and initialization methods is also given. A more precise description of these aspects will be provided in a further paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  Within the framework of the PMIP (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project), we have compared mid-Holocene climate simulations from 16 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) with new pollen-based reconstructions of the European bioclimatic variables for winter and growing season temperatures as well as annual water budget changes. In winter, some models are able to simulate the reconstructed northeastern warming, due to an increased heat transport from the ocean, associated with a larger north-south pressure gradient over the northern Atlantic. Whereas most models are only able to simulate a strong summer warming, data indicate a shorter and/ or colder growing season in southern Europe and a longer and/or warmer growing season in northwestern Europe. The reconstructed change in annual water budget indicates drier conditions in northwestern Europe and wetter conditions in southern Europe. Some models simulate such moisture changes, due to more summer evaporation over Scandinavia during summer, and more autumn-winter-spring precipitation over southern Europe. To address the PMIP approximation of no change in ocean and land boundary conditions, we have performed short sensitivity experiments to surface boundary conditions (sea-surface-temperatures, vegetation) using one single model. The model-data disagreements over Europe are probably due to the local influence of the surrounding oceans which are not taken into account in the first PMIP simulations. We therefore stress the need for more mid-Holocene SST reconstructions and further analysis of pollen data in the Mediterranean region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Acquisition of invasive/metastatic potential through protease expression is an essential event in tumor progression. High levels of components of the plasminogen activation system, including urokinase, but paradoxically also its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1), have been ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 398 (1999), S. 410-413 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The stable-isotope signatures of oxygen and hydrogen in the water of preserved ice and snow are both widely used to infer local temperatures of past environments. A derived quantity based on these two signatures, the ‘deuterium excess’, provides additional palaeoclimatic ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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