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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: MR imaging ; Contrast enhancement ; Liver ; Neoplasm ; Focal nodular hyperplasia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a superparamagnetic iron oxide, ferumoxides, in the detection and characterization of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on MR conventional spin-echo (SE), fast spin-echo (FSE) and gradient-echo (GRE) images. Fourteen adults with 27 FNHs were evaluated at 1.5 T before and after injection of ferumoxides. T1-weighted and T2-weighted SE, T2-weighted FSE and T2*-weighted GRE sequences were used and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. One hundred percent of FNHs showed a significant postcontrast decrease in signal intensity on T2- and T2*-weighted images. Heavily T2-weighted SE images showed the maximum decrease in FNH signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Postcontrast GRE T2*-weighted images improved the detection of the central scar and the delineation of FNHs and demonstrated the best lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (C/N). Postcontrast T1-weighted SE images showed the least lesion-to-liver C/N. Ferumoxides-enhanced MR imaging can help detect and characterize FNH. Conventional pre- and postcontrast T2-weighted SE images and postcontrast GRE T2*-weighted images should be used preferentially.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Digital subtraction angiography ; Gadolinium ; MR imaging ; Contrast media ; Kidney failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as an alternative contrast agent for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with renal insufficiency or previous anaphylactic reaction to iodinated contrast agents. We performed 34 DSAs in 31 patients by use of the commercially available 0.5-M Gd-DTPA solution (Magnevist, Schering, Berlin, Germany). The contrast material was power- or hand-injected at the same rate as iodinated contrast material, without exceeding a total amount of 0.4 mmol/kg body weight. In 18 studies Gd-DTPA was the sole contrast agent. In 9 cases gadolinium injections were combined with carbon dioxide. Restricted non-ionic contrast medium injections were administered to complete the examinations in 7 cases and for comparative purposes in 1 case. Cerebral and carotid arteries, one superior limb, abdominal aorta, renal arteries, renal transplants, iliac arteries and inferior limbs were imaged, and ten endovascular interventional procedures, including three transjugular intrahepatic percutaneous stent shunts, were performed. No side effects were observed. Diagnostic angiographic images were obtained in all cases except in 5 of the 8 distal run-off studies. Gadolinium-based contrast can produce clinically useful angiograms in patients with a contra-indication to iodine who must undergo angiography.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Arteries, therapeutic blockade ; Aneurysm, mesenteric ; Aneurym, mycotic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Embolisation of a mycotic aneurysm of the anterior pancreaticoduodenal arcade was performed in an emergency situation using a microcatheter and tissue adhesive, after unsuccessful surgical therapy. The polymerising agent occluded the outflow vessel, the aneurysm and the feeding artery successfully.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Hepatic veins, thrombosis ; Computed tomography, comparative studies ; Liver, computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A comparative study of the imaging findings of computed tomography (CT), selective arteriography, CT arteriography, and/or CT portography is presented in 4 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Hepatic differences in attenuation and morphologic changes were generally found to be closely related with regional disturbances in portal flow. Areas with complete hepatic vein obstruction were hypodense on pre- and postcontrast scans, probably due to portal flow inversion. In 2 of 4 cases, these were subsequently atrophied, while areas receiving the remaining venous outflow appeared hypertrophied. They were markedly enhanced on postcontrast scans. Enhancement may be patchy due to portal and sinusoidal stasis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Arterio-venous fistula ; dura mater ; endovascular therapy ; surgical treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors report 3 observations of dural arterio-venous fistula cured by combined neuroradiological and neurosurgical intervention. In the first case, the shunt affected the left lateral sinus. Repeated embolizations failed whilst intracranial hypertension developed, as a consequence of flux in the opposite lateral sinus and in the sagittal sinus. Surgical intervention, consisting in isolation of the transverse sinus, led to complete cure, after a one month delay. In the second case, the shunt was adjacent to the sagittal sinus, right pariet al, and had led to an intracerebral haematoma, by rupture of an arterialized cortical vein. Embolizations alone could not cure the fistula which therefore had to be excised. In the third case, the shunt was located in the falx, at the parieto-occipital junction, and was responsible for arterialization of cerebral veins in the right parieto-occipital region. For this reason, after failure of endovascular treatment, the fistula was coagulated, with subsequent complete cure. These three cases illustrate the different types of drainage of such arterio-venous fistula, and their corresponding neurological symptoms and signs, complications and risks, that required a radical — not only clinical, but also anatomical — cure. This aim was achieved when embolizations were accompanied by direct surgical attack.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brain abscess ; bacteriological study ; antibiotic therapy ; treatment by aspiration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sixteen patients, with a total of 18 abscesses, were treated by aspiration and systemic antibiotic therapy, to which antiepileptic prophylaxis and corticosteroids were added. Diagnosis of the abscesses and monitoring of their evolution relied principally upon computed tomography; this technique was also used per-operatively when aspirating small abscesses. Bacteriological examinations were positive in all our cases and a polymicrobial flora was found in half of these. One or, eventually, two aspirations within the same week were sufficient, in most cases, to promote healing. Nevertheless, in three patients, the abscesses, however sterilized, did not show any volume reduction, probably because of adhesions to the dura mater, of a large part of the abscess surface area. One patient died from concomitant cardiac disease and one patient remained seriously disabled. Epilepsy was observed as a sequela, in six patients. This study emphasizes the role of neuroradiological and bacteriological examinations, whilst surgery may be restricted, in most cases, to a simple aspiration.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim : To evaluate adjuvant modalities after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma using a meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials.Methods : In a first step, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out. Sensitivity analyses after inclusion of non-randomized controlled trials were performed. Four therapeutic modalities were evaluated: pre-operative transarterial chemotherapy, post-operative transarterial chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy and a combination of systemic and transarterial chemotherapy.Results : Only post-operative transarterial chemotherapy improved survival significantly at 2 years [difference, 22.8%; confidence interval (CI), 8.6–36.9%; P = 0.002] and 3 years (difference, 27.6%; CI, 8.2–47.1%; P = 0.005), and decreased the probability of no recurrence at 1 year (difference, 28.8%; CI, 16.7–40.8%; P 〈 0.001), 2 years (difference, 27.6%; CI, 8.2–47.1%; P = 0.005) and 3 years (difference, 28%; CI, 8.2–47.9%; P = 0.006). In a sensitivity analysis after inclusion of non-randomized controlled trials, post-operative transarterial chemotherapy still improved survival at 1 year (difference, 9.6%; CI, 0.8–18.3%; P = 0.03), 2 years (difference, 13.5%; CI, 0.9–26%, P = 0.04) and 3 years (difference, 18%; CI, 7–28.9%; P 〈 0.001), and decreased the probability of no recurrence at 1 year (difference, 20.3%; CI, 7.7–33%; P = 0.002), 2 years (difference, 35%; CI, 21.4–46.3%; P 〈 0.001) and 3 years (difference, 34.5%; CI, 18.7–50.3%; P 〈 0.001).Conclusion : Post-operative transarterial chemotherapy improved survival and decreased the cumulative probability of no recurrence. New randomized controlled trials evaluating this modality are required.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: MRI brain ; Dural sinus thrombosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In three patients with clinically unsuspected diagnosis, MRI has afforded a positive and conspicuous demonstration of dural sinus thrombosis, allowing specific treatment and followed by improvement in the patients' condition. Even in retrospect, CT examinations were nondiagnostic. Presenting symptoms were usual and nonspecific. CT and radionuclide scanning have proved valuable when performed on a clinically oriented basis. Angiography cannot be carried out without clear indications. MRI offers advantages in being a non-invasive technique without ionising radiation, allowing direct visualization and accurate delineation of the thrombus. MRI is definitely the method of choice to assess clinically suspected cerebral venous occlusion. As MR diagnosis relies on a routine examination protocol, we believe that it will detect other unsuspected cases of dural sinus thrombosis.
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