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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this study, we examined the effects of a 105 amino acid carboxyl terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor protein (CT105) and inflammatory cytokines on working memory in rats, by using a three-panel runway set-up. CT105 at 10 nmol/side significantly impaired working memory when it was administered bilaterally into the hippocampus. Furthermore, to elucidate the interaction of CT105 with inflammatory cytokines, we co-administered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in combination with CT105. Concurrent injections of CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) and TNF-α (100 ng/side) produced a synergistic deficit of working memory, whereas IL-1β (100 ng/side) combined with CT105 (1.0 nmol/side) did not affect the working memory performance. These results indicate that the CT105-induced impairment of working memory is strongly aggravated by an increase in the level of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, which may occur in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to diagnose thrombus and to evaluate blood flow in aortic diseases, we investigated the usefulness of tagging cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Six abdominal aortic aneurysms, two aortic arch aneurysms and three aortic dissections were examined with use of tagging cine MRI. Linear tagging bands were 3 or 5 mm width and established to the long and short axial images of the aortic lesions. Tagging bands were confirmed as the low-intensity signal bands in all patients. The parts of tagging bands of the intraaortic thrombus didn't move, whereas the parts of tagging bands of the intraaortic blood flow moved and faded as time passed. Intraaortic thrombi were diagnosed in eight patients (6 abdominal aortic aneurysms, 1 aortic arch aneurysm, and 1 aortic dissection) in accordance with the stain of the parts of tagging bands. In patients with aortic dissection, the parts of tagging bands in the false lumen moved slowly, whereas the parts of tagging bands in the true lumen moved fast. Tagging cine MRI has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of thrombus and blood flow in aortic diseases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the aortic wall distensibility (AD) in hemodialysis patients, we measured AD at the ascending aorta using cine magnetic resonance imaging in 10 hemodialysis patients (HDP) and 10 normal controls (NC). Age and sex were matched in HDP and NC. Transverse image of the aorta was measured in the maximum and minimum frames. AD was calculated from the following formula: (Max. area — Min. area)/Min. area × pulse pressure). Although systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and minimum area of ascending aorta showed no significant differences between HDP and NC, AD was significantly lower in HDP (2.95±0.87 × 10−3 mmHg−1) than in NC (6.61±3.12×10−3 mmHg−1) (p〈0.01). It is suspected that hemodialysis patients have advanced aortic wall sclerosis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-5939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to diagnose thrombus and to evaluate blood flow in aortic diseases, we investigated the usefulness of tagging cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Six abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), two aortic arch aneurysms, and three aortic dissections were examined using tagging cine MRI. Linear tagging bands were 3 or 5 mm wide and established to the long and short axial images of the aortic lesions. Tagging bands were confirmed as the low-intensity signal bands in all patients. The parts of tagging bands of the intraaortic thrombus did not move, whereas the parts of tagging bands of the intraaortic blood flow moved and faded as time passed. Intraaortic thrombi were diagnosed in eight patients (six AAA, one aortic arch aneurysm, and one aortic dissection) in accordance with the stain of the parts of tagging bands. In patients with aortic dissection, the parts of tagging bands in the false lumen moved slowly, whereas the parts of tagging bands in the true lumen moved quickly. Tagging cine MRI has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of thrombus and blood flow in aortic diseases.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7241
    Keywords: aortic distensibility ; essential hypertension ; diuretic ; calcium antagonist ; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To assess the effect of antihypertensive drugs on aortic distensibility, we evaluated the aortic distensibility of 33 hypertensive patients before and after antihypertensive treatment by using cine magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty three hypertensive patients were divided into three groups and treated for 12 weeks with 2–4 mg trichlormethiazide per day (n = 10), 80 mg nicardipine per day (n = 13) and 50 mg alacepril per day (n = 10). There were no significant differences in mean age and mean blood pressure among the three groups. Cine magnetic resonance was performed at ascending and descending aortic levels. Aortic area was measured at the maximum and minimum frames. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on aortic distensibility was evaluated as the percent change from before treatment to after treatment. There were no significant differences in pulse pressure before and after treatment with trichlormethiazide, nicardipine and alacepril. After treatment with these drugs, mean blood pressure in all groups decreased (trichlormethiazide and nicardipine, P 〈 .01; alacepril, P 〈 .05), (the maximum area - the minimum area) and aortic distensibility in all groups increased significantly (each P 〈 .01). Percent changes in aortic distensibility after treatment were significantly higher with nicardipine (ascending, 346.6 ± 255.9%; descending, 338.8 ± 246.5%, each P 〈 .05) and alacepril (ascending, 369.7 ± 238.8%, P 〈 .05; descending, 306.9 ± 123.3%, P 〈 .01) than with trichlormethiazide (ascending, 146.0 ± 139.6%; descending, 129.3 ± 97.5%). In conclusion, nicardipine and alacepril have a beneficial effect on aortic distensibility.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1540-8183
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report an unusual case of acute myocardial infarction attributable to obstruction of a discrete coronary aneurysm in a 54-year-old man. Although coronary angioplasty and thrombolysis were unsuccessful, serial arteriography showed spontaneous recanalization, and no spasm was induced by ergonovine. We discuss its mechanism.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8183
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report two cases with induced coronary spasm of the culprit lesion in the infarct related coronary artery in the chronic phase after primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). To our knowledge, there are few data on the response of the angioplasty site to ergonovine in human coronary arteries after primary PTCA. It is important to note that chest pain recurring after successful primary PTCA is not automatically related to restenosis, and coronary spasm in patients with previous myocardial infarction, should also be considered. (J Interven Cardiol 2000;31–34)
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: hydrogen peroxide ; high-energy phosphate ; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ; glycolytic inhibition ; calcium overload
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was undertaken to clarify the role of high-energy phosphate metabolism in hydrogen peroxide-induced cardiac dysfunction using phosphorus and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exposure of a Langendorff-perfused heart to hydrogen peroxide (200-400 μmol/L, 8 min) provoked biphasic contractile dysfunction characterized by a transient depression of left ventricular developed pressure during the administration of hydrogen peroxide and a delayed elevation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure after the washout of hydrogen peroxide. The initial phase of cardiac dysfunction correlated well with the accumulation of sugar phosphates (r = 0.89, p 〈 0.01). Furthermore, we demonstrated that glibenclamide, a potent inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, attenuated the initial depression of developed pressure. On the other hand, the delayed elevation of end-diastolic pressure correlated well with the total ATP depletion (r = 0.96, p 〈 0.01). However, ATP loss was supposed to be a mere result from the increased ATP consumption corresponding to a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ (from the control value of 315 ± 23 nmol/L to 708 ± 104 after the administration of hydrogen peroxide, p 〈 0.01), which also paralleled the elevation of end-diastolic pressure. Thus glycolytic inhibition and intracellular Ca2+ overload are independently responsible for the biphasic contractile dysfunction induced by hydrogen peroxide.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: sarcolemma ; myofibrils ; Na+/Ca2+ exchange ; sarcoplasmic reticulum ; cardiac contraction ; Ca2+ pump
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many experiments have been done to clarify the effects of oxygen free radicals on Ca2+ homeostasis in the hearts. A burst of oxygen free radicals occurs immediately after reperfusion, but we have to be reminded that the exact levels of oxygen free radicals in the hearts are yet unknown in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, we should give careful consideration to this point when we perform the experiments and analayze the results. It is, however, evident that Ca2+ overload occurs when the hearts are exposed to an excess amount of oxygen free radicals. Though ATP-independent Ca2+ binding is increased, Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channel does not increase in the presence of oxygen free radicals. Another possible pathway through which Ca2+ can enter the myocytes is Na+−Ca2+ exchanger. Although, the activities of Na+−K+ ATPase and Na+−Ca2+ exchanger. Although, the activities of Na+−H+ exchange are inhibited by oxygen free radicals, it is not known whether intracellular Na+ level increases under oxidative stress or not. The question has to be solved for the understanding of the importance of Na+−Ca2+ exchange in Ca2+ influx process from extracellular space. Another question is ‘which way does Na+−Ca2+ exchange work under oxidative stress? Net influx or efflux of Ca2+?’ Membrane permeability for Ca2+ may be maintained in a relatively early phase of free radical injury. Since sarcolemmal Ca2+-pump ATPase activity is depressed by oxygen free radicals, Ca2+ extrusion from cytosol to extracellular space is considered to be reduced. It has also been shown that oxygen free radicals promote Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and inhibit Ca2+ sequestration to sarcoplasmic reticulum. Thus, these changes in Ca2+ handling systems could cause the Ca2+ overload due to oxygen free radicals.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: sarcolemma ; myofibrils, Na+/Ca2+ exchange ; sarcoplasmic reticulum ; cardiac contraction ; Ca2+ pump
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Many experiments have been done to clarify the effects of oxygen free radicals on Ca2+ homeostasis in the hearts. A burst of oxygen free radicals occurs immediately after reperfusion, but we have to be reminded that the exact levels of oxygen free radicals in the hearts are yet unknown in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, we should give careful consideration to this point when we perform the experiments and analyze the results. It is, however, evident that Ca2+ overload occurs when the hearts are exposed to an excess amount of oxygen free radicals. Though ATP-independent Ca2+ binding is increased, Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channel does not increase in the presence of oxygen free radicals. Another possible pathway through which Ca2+ can enter the myocytes is Na+−Ca2+ exchanger. Although, the activities of Na+−K+ ATPase and Na+−H+ exchange are inhibited by oxygen free radicals, it is not known whether intracellular Na+ level increases under oxidative stress or not. The question has to be solved for the understanding of the importance of Na+−Ca2+ exchange in Ca2+ influx process from extracellular space. Another question is ‘which way does Na+−Ca2+ exchange work under oxidative stress? Net influx or efflux of Ca2+?’ Membrane permeability for Ca2+ may be maintained in a relatively early phase of free radical injury. Since sarcolemmal Ca2+-pump ATPase activity is depressed by oxygen free radicals, Ca2+ extrusion from cytosol to extracellular space is considered to be reduced. It has also been shown that oxygen free radicals promote Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and inhibit Ca2+ sequestration to sarcoplasmic reticulum. Thus, these changes in Ca2+ handling systems could cause the Ca2+ overload due to oxygen free radicals.
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