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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Freshly delivered human placentas were exposed to ultrasound for 30 min using a diagnostic linear array unit. Blood was then drawn and cultured in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, and the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in the lymphocytes determined. There was no statistically significant difference in SCE frequencies between control and exposed cells; the frequencies of SCEs per cell ranged from 4.50 to 6.02 for control and from 4.66 to 6.10 for exposed cells in five separate experiments. Positive control mitomycin C treated cells were significantly affected, with more than 50 SCEs per cell.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The vanilloid TRPV1 receptor, present on primary afferent fibres, is activated by noxious heat, low pH and endogenous vanilloids. Changes in the function or distribution of TRPV1 receptors may play an important role in pain induced by inflammation or neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of peripheral TRPV1 receptors in thermal nociception in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we have determined the effects of peripheral administration of the potent TRPV1 receptor antagonist iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX) on noxious heat (45 °C)-evoked responses of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in naïve, carrageenan-inflamed, sham-operated and L5/6 spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) anaesthetized rats in vivo. In addition, effects of peripheral administration of IRTX on mechanically evoked responses of WDR neurons were determined in sham-operated and SNL rats. Carrageenan inflammation significantly (P 〈 0.05) increased the 45 °C-evoked responses of WDR neurons. Intraplantar injection of the lower dose of IRTX (0.004 µg) inhibited (P 〈 0.05) 45 °C-evoked responses of WDR neurons in carrageenan-inflamed, but not in naïve, rats. The higher dose of IRTX (0.4 µg) significantly (P 〈 0.05) inhibited 45 °C-evoked responses in both inflamed and naïve rats. In sham-operated and SNL rats, IRTX (0.004 and 0.4 µg) significantly (P 〈 0.05) inhibited 45 °C-evoked, but had no effect on mechanically evoked responses of WDR neurons. These data support the role of peripheral TRPV1 receptors in noxious thermal transmission in naïve, inflamed and neuropathic rats, and suggest that there is an increased functional contribution of peripheral TRPV1 receptors following acute inflammation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Peripheral cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2 receptors) modulate immune responses and attenuate nociceptive behaviour in models of acute and persistent pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether peripheral CB2 receptors modulate spinal processing of innocuous and noxious responses and to determine whether there are altered roles of CB2 receptors in models of persistent pain. Effects of local administration of the CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 (5 and 15 µg/50 µL) on mechanically evoked responses of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in noninflamed rats, rats with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation, sham operated rats and spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats were determined in anaesthetized rats in vivo. Mechanical stimulation (von Frey filaments, 6–80 g) of the peripheral receptive field evoked firing of WDR neurons. Mechanically evoked responses of WDR neurons were similar in noninflamed, carrageenan-inflamed, sham-operated and SNL rats. Intraplantar injection of JWH-133 (15 µg), but not vehicle, significantly (P 〈 0.05) inhibited innocuous and noxious mechanically evoked responses of WDR neurons in all four groups of rats. In many cases the selective CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528 (10 µg/50 µL), attenuated the inhibitory effects of JWH-133 (15 µg) on mechanically evoked WDR neuronal responses. The CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, did not attenuate the inhibitory effects of JWH-133 on these responses. Intraplantar preadministration of JWH-133 also inhibited (P 〈 0.05) carrageenan-induced expansion of peripheral receptive fields of WDR dorsal horn neurons. This study demonstrates that activation of peripheral CB2 receptors attenuates both innocuous- and noxious-evoked responses of WDR neurons in models of acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The presence of cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors on primary afferent fibres may provide a novel target for cannabinoid analgesics. The present study investigated the ability of peripheral CB1 receptors to modulate innocuous and noxious transmission in noninflamed rats and rats with peripheral carrageenan inflammation. Effects of peripheral injection of arachidonyl-2-choroethylamide (ACEA; 10 and 30 µg in 50 µL), a selective CB1 receptor agonist, on mechanically evoked responses of dorsal horn neurons were studied in noninflamed rats and rats with peripheral carrageenan inflammation. Peripheral injection of ACEA (30 µg in 50 µL) significantly inhibited innocuous (12 g) mechanically evoked responses of spinal neurons in noninflamed (27 ± 4% of control; P 〈 0.01) and inflamed (12 ± 8% of control; P 〈 0.05) rats. Similarly, noxious (80 g) mechanically evoked responses of spinal neurons were inhibited by peripheral injection of ACEA (30 µg in 50 µL) in noninflamed rats (51 ± 9% of control; P 〈 0.01) and rats with peripheral carrageenan inflammation (21 ± 8% of control; P 〈 0.01). Inhibitory effects of ACEA were significantly greater in rats with peripheral carrageenan inflammation than in noninflamed rats (P 〈 0.05). Inhibitory effects of ACEA were significantly blocked by coadministration of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A in both groups of rats. Peripheral injection of SR141716A alone did not alter mechanically evoked responses of spinal neurons in either group of rats. These data demonstrate that activation of peripheral CB1 receptors can inhibit innocuous and noxious somatosensory processing. Furthermore, following peripheral inflammation there is an enhanced inhibitory effect of a peripherally administered CB1 receptor agonist on both innocuous and noxious mechanically evoked responses of spinal neurons.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: Bonsai Gelsolin Survives Heat Induced Denaturation by Forming β-Amyloids which Leach Out Functional Monomer Bonsai Gelsolin Survives Heat Induced Denaturation by Forming β-Amyloids which Leach Out Functional Monomer, Published online: 22 August 2018; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30951-3 Bonsai Gelsolin Survives Heat Induced Denaturation by Forming β-Amyloids which Leach Out Functional Monomer
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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