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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Primates 15 (1974), S. 179-192 
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Invariant quantities provide the basis for recognizing generally valid rules for intraspecific communication among our squirrel monkeys. Such quantities, along with some variable quantities, have been found. These invariant quantities, independent of individual characteristics of the animals or the animal groups, give rise to the following rules: (1) The behavior units (u), set up according to a physical description of movements and postures involved, are not directed from each animal towards every partner in arbitrary frequency. Rather, each behavior unit is characterized through being distributed in definite frequency relations among the partners. (2) Not only “what” is done is significant, but also “who” does it and towards “whom” it is done. (3) “Who” is determined by the hierarchical rank of “who.” (4) The hierarchical rank of animals correlates with the variability with which the animals use the given behavior units. (After the stimulation artifact has subsided, the variability is greater in the higher ranking animal.) (5) Behavior units resembling each other with respect to the frequency relations mentioned in rule 1 have similar functions in the communication processes (i.e. they transmit similar messages). (6) Behavior units definitely differing from each other with respect to these frequency relations have different functions in the communication processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The communicative functions of agonistic behaviour patterns of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are investigated in automated telestimulation experiments. The aim of this paper is to reveal how the context of a behavioural event-expressed in terms of the participating animals-has an influence on its communicative function. We included in our analysis animals involved in a behavioural event as sender and recipient of a certain signal, as well as the initiator-that is, the animal which caused the sequence in which the behavioural event in question occurs. Using this approach we found that 1. Animals in an experimental group form subgroups when taking part in the communication network, and the subgroups prove to be different, depending upon whether a male or a female initiates the communication process (Table 3). 2. The communicative meaning of the same behaviour pattern may vary, depending upon whether a higher or a lower-ranking animal performs or receives it. 3. Moreover, the same behaviour pattern exchanged between the same partners in the same direction may differ in its communicative meaning, depending upon whether a male or a female is the initiator. For example, the behaviour pattern “genital display” appears as a “weak dominance” gesture if it is directed from the dominant male towards a male initiator. However, it appears as a “triumph” gesture if directed from the dominant male towards a non-initiator animal regardless of its sex (see Fig. 9, and Tables 1 and 3). The assignment of a functional label such as “triump” or “weak dominance” to a certain behaviour class in a certain context is thereby done in a purely operational manner (Table 7) on the basis of the outcome of several quantitative measures, each of which quantifies a relevant aspect of communication processes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Primates 32 (1991), S. 307-320 
    ISSN: 0032-8332
    Keywords: Vocalizations ; Visually recognizable ; Signals ; Squirrel monkeys ; Behavior sequences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Visually recognizable social signals and structural call components, which had been demonstrated to be of social relevance within their own communication channel in previous experiments (disregarding or experimentally excluding other ones), were treated together, and their inter-dependencies analyzed when they were performed simultaneously in spontaneous behavior sequences of pairs of adult squirrel monkeys. It was found that: (1) all call classes were uttered within periods when either genital display or “triumph gesture” were shown; (2) production rates of particular vocal classes significantly deviated from no-display periods; (3) degree and direction of deviations (more/less frequent) were quite specific for both vocal and nonvocal classes (Figs. 1a & 1b); (4) differences depended also on which animal actually displayed (the vocalizing one, the other one, or both; Fig. 3); and (5) differences found for single animals when they played different roles in the experimental situation were smaller than those found between individuals, which could be related to dominance status (Table 2). The possibility of mutual modification of signals of different modalities and perspectives for future work are discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Behavioral Biology 9 (1973), S. 511-516 
    ISSN: 0091-6773
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Behavioral Biology 9 (1973), S. 511-516 
    ISSN: 0091-6773
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0163-1047
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Psychology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Social signals ; Radio brain stimulation ; Primate communication Sequential behavior ; Squirrel monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Social signals of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were elicited by remote-controlled brain stimulation. The method employed permits a study of signal-response interdependencies in varying social situations which can be chosen at the experimenter's will. The function of a signal and thereby its information content are largely determined by the response of the recipients. The analysis of signal function was attempted under five conditions of social interactions: (1) reactions of group members to attack behavior of the stimulated animal, (2) reactions to dominance gestures of the stimulated animal, (3) reactions to signals that are indiscernible to the human observer, (4) reactions that are unusual or abnormal, and (5) reactions to signals sent over greater or lesser distances. Several aspects of the signal proved to be decisive for the prediction of behavior: (1) the signal intensity, (2) the space between animals, and (3) the context. The control of these variables by means of radio stimulation permits further quantitative studies of signal characteristics and their effects on the modification of social behavior.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Primate communication ; Telestimulation ; Mathematical analyses ; Squirrel monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The technique of telestimulation was employed in studying the social behavior of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Within a group of five monkeys an animal is electrically stimulated. Its stimulus response and the consecutively occurring reactions of the non-stimulated animals caused by the stimulus response form a sequence of actions. Using stimulus parameters which remained constant, the stimulation of the same electrode in the same animal was repeated automatically. The sequences of actions accumulated thereby were then analysed mathematically on the basis of probability theory. The frequency distributions, the transition matrices and the courses of the frequencies of the actions over the sequences provided the basis for a classification of the behavior units. The courses of the values of entropy and conditional entropy provided summarized information about the sequential process of the animals' behavior. The study of the structure of the sequences was approached by appropriate tests. The applicability of the mathematical methods employed to the material at hand is discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Electrical brain stimulation ; Evoked vocalization ; Saimiri sciureus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study 90 electrode positions, obtained from 13 adult squirrel monkeys, are presented from which vocalizations were reproducibly evoked by electrical brain stimulation. For 49 of these positions the evoked vocalization was classified according to our call catalog. Eleven of the 26 vocalizations listed in our catalog were elicitable by electrical brain stimulation. In addition to vocalization of a single type, vocalization sequences, which were indistinguishable from spontaneously occurring ones, could be elicited from fixed electrode positions. Aggression calls were found predominately in the hypothalamus and amygdala, contact calls in the septum. Among the evoked responses occurring simultaneously with vocalization, the genital response is of greatest interest since it also occurs in a spontaneous context with vocalization; specifically as a component of genital display.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Primate vocalization ; Discrete units ; Amplitude changes ; “Dialogues”
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The identification of units used in primate vocal behaviour and the isolation of components essential for intraspecific communication (i.e. having a function) from possibly inessential ones (i.e. having no function) is an absolute prerequisite to a successful analysis of primate vocalizations. For most calls special methods are required because neither the essentials of structure nor their relation to function are known, nor the context involved. For calls without any distinct frequency modulation we showed that the animals utter calls containing categorical amplitude changes. The changes within one call are either very small or very large. The positions or the very large amplitude changes within a call depend on the social situation the animals were subjected to and affect the immediately succeeding vocalization of the conspecific. This proves that in vocal communication discrete components are produced (structure) as well as used (function).
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