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  • 1
    ISSN: 1431-4630
    Keywords: Key words Potato ; gbss-antisense construct ; Endogenous promoter ; Nested polymerase chain reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Two potato varieties, Rustica and Desiree, were tested for a genetic modification consisting of a granule bound starch synthase (gbss) gene in antisense orientation combined with the endogenous B33 promoter and parts of the pBIN 19 plasmid vector including the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene as a marker. Various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were constructed for vector sequences, target inserts and the marker gene. At first no products with the predicted target-insert size were obtained. However, a long-template PCR combined with a nested PCR led to the expected amplification product in the Desiree variety. Results were confirmed by a restriction endonuclease digest, Southern blotting of fragments and by biochemical tests. The potato variety Rustica showed no target insert sequences on molecular analysis, nor did biochemical methods indicate modifications of the phenotype (i.e. reduced amounts of gbss protein and amylose). Only vector sequences and the marker gene were detected by the PCR method.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents an analysis of interactions of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by using the principles of bidirectional communication theory. This theory of Marko and Neuburger is a generalization of Shannon's information theory and allows the description of the dominance relations of a two-partner situation. In the present case the observed behavioural sequences nearly correspond to Markoff chains of the 4th order. Two typical strategies regarding the exercise of dominance were observed during a change in dominance between two animals. A comparison with respective findings on social psychology is possible.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A novel insonification system, intended for the verification of the existence and assessment of single-frequency, nonthermal vibrational effects of ultrasound on biological targets, is described. The induction of vibration-triggered damage was made possible by insonifying suitable targets immersed in liquid nitrogen with continuous-wave ultrasound at approximately 3, 5, and 7 MHz, while monitoring the ultrasonic intensities (2–24 mW/cm2) by acoustic and acousto-optic methods. The extent and nature of vibration-induced damage in recovered samples may then be assessed by a variety of analytical procedures.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The length of the free-running periods of circadian leaf movements in the primary and secondary pulvini of Phaseolus coccineus was measured in constant darkness (DD) and continuous light (LL) of different intensities. The periods for the two pulvini do not differ from each other in DD and LL 30000 lx. However, they differ in LL 60 lx, 600 lx and 6000 lx, indicating a state of internal desynchronization. These results show a difference in the light intensity dependence of the 2 oscillations and a lack of mutual synchronization between them.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: cAMP ; Circadian rhythms ; Imidazole ; Leaf movement ; Rhythms (circadian) ; Theophylline ; Trifolium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The period length of the leaf movement rhythm of Trifolium repens L. is lengthened by continuously offered cAMP (0.5–1.0 mol m-3) and theophylline (0.5–4 mol m-3). At the higher concentrations this effect is more pronounced and the rhythm damps out faster. Imidazole (0.5 and 1 mol m-3) has no effect on the period length; however, after 5 mol m-3 the rhythm is abolished. Offered as 4 h pulses the resulting phase response curves for cAMP and imidazole are similar and show delays of up to 4 h during the day position of the leaves. Theophylline pulses lead to delays of up to 5 h during closure and advances of up to 3 h during opening. No phase shift is brought about by 4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidone. The results do not support the cAMP-model of the circadian clock which has been proposed by Cummings (J. theor. Biol. 55, 455–470; 1975). The effect of the substances tested could, however, be based upon influences on the transport of Ca2+.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 70 (1966), S. 237-256 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Aus der Flora Spitzbergens (76.–80. Breitengrad) wurden für Taraxacum arcticum und Arnica angustifolia endogen-circadiane und kurzperiodische Blattbewegungen nachgewiesen. Aus dem arktischen Europa unter 70° nördlicher Breite, wurden bei Astragalus frigidus, Astragalus alpinus und Hedysarum hedysaroides endogen-circadiane Blattbewegungen gefunden. 2. Der Vergleich der circadianen Rhythmik bei arktischen und mitteleuropäischen Pflanzen (auch der intraspezifische Vergleich arktischalpiner Pflanzen) ergibt, daß die artspezifischen Spontanperioden, abgesehen von Taraxacum officinale und Taraxacum arcticum, keine signifikaten Unterschiede erkennen lassen. Bei Taraxacum arcticum ist die Spontanperiode kürzer als bei Taraxacum officinale. Die in der Regel geringe Zahl der circadianen Nachschwingungen bei arktischen Pflanzen könnte ein Hinweis auf eine Schwächung des selbsterregten Systems sein. 3. Mehrere tropische Arten zeigen Spontanperioden, die wesentlich länger als die der mitteleuropäischen und arktischen Pflanzen sind und weit über 24 Std liegen. 4. Der Temperatureinfluß auf die circadiane Rhythmik tropischer Pflanzen ist unterschiedlich: Bei 5 Arten (Erythrina senegalensis, Albizzia lophanta, Rhynchosia memmonia, Vigna catjang und Phaseolus multiflorus) ist die Spontanperiode temperaturunabhängig. Für eine dieser Arten (Erythrina senegalensis) konnte eine starke Temperaturabhängigkeit der relativen Amplitude im LL und LD nachgewiesen werden. Bei 6 Arten (Phaseolus mungo, Canavalia obtusifolia, Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Vigna sesquipedalis und Dolichos zebra) wird die Spontanperiode mit zunehmender Konstanttemperatur kürzer. Für zwei dieser Arten (Phaseolus mungo und Vigna sesquipedalis) konnte die Temperaturunabhängigkeit der relativen Amplitude nachgewiesen werden. 5. Astragalus frigidus (arktisch) zeigt noch bei 12°C circadiane Bewegungen. Einige tropische Arten zeigen in 17°C im LL keine tagesperiodischen Blattbewegungen mehr. 6. Werden die Arten bei ungefähr optimalen Temperaturen untersucht, d. h. tropische Arten bei 27°C, mitteleuropäische und arktische bei 17°C, so sind die Unterschiede in den Spontanperioden (vgl. 3) weitgehend verschwunden, alle Arten zeigen Periodenlängen, die maximal 3–4 Std von der 24stündigen Periode abweichen.
    Notes: Summary 1 Two species of plants (Taraxacum arcticum and Arnica angustifolia), collected in Spitsbergen (geogr. latitude 76–80 degrees) exhibit endogenous circadian leaf movements but also movements with shorter periods. Astragalus frigidus, A. alpinus and Hedysarum hedysaroides, collected in arctic regions of continental Europe, also show endogenous diurnal leaf movements. 2. In most of the species tested, there was no difference in the length of the free running periods of plants from arctic and Central-European regions. This is also the case when individuals of the same species collected in different regions are compared. However, in Taraxacum arcticum the period is shorter than in T. officinale In general, under constant conditions the circadian oscillations of arctic plants persist for a shorter period than those of other plants. 3. The free running periods of several of the investigated species from tropical regions are much longer than 24 hours, i.e., much longer than those of species from Central-European and arctic regions. 4. The free running periods of several tropical species are temperature-independent (Erythrina senegalensis, Albizzia lophanta, Rhynchosia memmonia, Vigna catjang, Phaseolus multiflorus). In other tropical species, however, the periods decrease rather strongly with increasing temperature (Phaseolus mungo, Canavalia obtusifolia, Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Vigna sesquipedalis, Dolichos zebra). The temperature does not influence the amplitudes in Phaseolus mungo and Vigna sesquipedalis, but it strongly influences the amplitudes in Erythrina senegalensis, in LD-cycles as well as in continuous light. 5. The arctic plant Astragalus frigidus still shows free running oscillations at 12°C, whereas several tropical species oscillate only at temperatures above 17°C. 6. The differences in the periods of tropical and non-tropical species (see under [3]) disappear if the plants are compared not at the same temperature but at temperatures which are optimal for them. If tropical plants are tested 27°C and Central-European and arctic species at 17°C, the periods always approach the value of 24 hours.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4862
    Keywords: bounded ultrasonic beam reflectivity ; Rayleigh angle ; beam profile ; surface defects ; nonspecular reflection ; NDE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The relationships between characteristics of elastic defects and nonspecular features of bounded ultrasonic beams reflected at the Rayleigh angle from a liquid-solid interface are investigated. The results can serve as a theoretical basis for interpretation of Rayleigh angle nonspecularly reflected beam profiles as characterization of localized surface elastic defects.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9974
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Economics
    Notes: Abstract Consistent estimation requires finding the global maximum of some specifiedobjective function. Local maxima are often easy to find, but do notnecessarily yield consistent estimates. In many nonlinear applications, theresearcher can rarely be certain that a found local maximum is global. Thispaper examines the ability of random draw tests and specification tests todetect spurious maxima. For random draw tests we analyze Veall (1990) and atest introduced here based on a generalized beta distribution. Specificationtests routinely used by researchers are also examined as methods for detectingspurious maxima. Monte Carlo results are reported on various test functions.The results suggest that specification testa are more useful than the randomdraw tests for detecting spurious maxima.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0075-4617
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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