Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin (DOX), iodo-doxorubicin (I-DOX) and their metabolites in plasma has been examined in five patients each receiving 50 mg/m2 of both anthracyclines as a bolus injection. Terminal half-life, mean residence time (MRT), peak plasma concentration Cmax, and area under the curve (AUC) appeared smaller for I-DOX, whereas its plasma clearance (CLp) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) were larger than for DOX. The major metabolite of I-DOX was iodo-doxorubicinol (I-AOL) followed by doxorubicinol aglycone (AOLON). The AUC of I-AOL was 6-times larger than that of its counterpart AOL, which is the major metabolite of DOX. AOLON generated after I-DOX administration is a further important metabolite, as its AUC was 10-times larger than that of AOLON generated from DOX. The other aglycones, such as doxorubicin aglycone (AON) and the 7-deoxy-aglycones were only minor metabolites after either I-DOX or DOX injection. The ratio AUCI-AOL/AOL/AUCI-DOX/DOX was 27 in the case of I-DOX and 0.4 after DOX. The terminal half-lives of the cytostatic metabolites I-AOL and AOL were similar, although a longer MRT for AOL was calculated. Both metabolites had much longer MRTs than their parent drugs. The MRTs of the aglycones AOLON and AON were greater than those of the 7-deoxy-aglycones after both I-DOX and DOX. Approximately 6% DOX and less than 1% I-DOX were excreted by the kidneys during the initial 48 h. About 5% of I-DOX was excreted via the kidneys as I-AOL. Aglycones were not detected in significant amounts. The plasma concentrations of all compounds measured were highest during the first few minutes after administration of I-DOX and DOX. The I-AOL concentration was comparable to that of I-DOX immediately after the injection, due to very rapid metabolism within the central compartment (vascular space) by the aldoketo reductase system in the erythrocytes. The plasma concentration-time curves of (7d)-aglycones showed a second peak between 2 and 9 h after injection, suggesting enterohepatic circulation of metabolites lacking the daunosamine sugar moiety.
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