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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: Potassium channel openers ; monophasic action potentials ; refractory period ; dofetilide ; calcium currents ; guinea pig ventricular myocytes ; whole cell patch clamp
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of the potassium channel openers (KCO), cromakalim or pinacidil, were evaluated in an anesthetized porcine model of pacing- and ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Hearts were paced at 180 bpm and the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded until VF was induced. Reproducible times to VF (in seconds) were obtained allowing at least 20 min recovery following defibrillation. Cromakalim (0.3 mg/kg) or pinacidil (3 mg/kg) produced equivalent drops in mean arterial blood pressure. At these doses, cromakalim reduced monophasic action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (APD90). Although time to VF in the cromakalim group was significantly greater than the vehicle treated group, it was not significantly different from its predrug value. In contrast, pinacidil reduced APD90, and significantly increased time to VF from 134±5 to 322±62 s (p〈0.05). Neither cromakalim nor pinacidil affected whole-cell calcium currents recorded in guinea pig myocytes. During ischemia, cromakalim or pinacidil further reduced APD90; however, pinacidil had a two-fold greater effect than did cromakalim. The Class III antiarrhythmic agent, dofetilide, prolonged APD90, but did not increase time to VF. In conclusion, the increased time to VF observed with pinacidil coincides with its ability to shorten APD, and is consistent with activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K+ ATP). It is suggested that indirect reduction of calcium influx through K+ ATP activation and APD shortening is sufficient to increase time to VF in this model. However, the inability of dofetilide to be effective suggests that this model would not be useful to test for Class III antiarrhythmic agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 262-272 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: airway ; beta2-agonist ; racemic ; eutomer ; distomer ; hyperreactivity ; bronchospasm ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Airways of asthma patients can become hyperresponsive to airway spasmogens following regular use of isoprenaline or β2-selective sympathomimetics. Hyperreactivity that results from acute exposure of animals to these drugs is pre-empted by vagal section (a procedure which does not influence spasmolytic efficacy of sympathomimetics), is not diminished by antagonism of β2-adrenoceptors and is not associated with loss of responsivity of β2-adrenoceptors in the airways. Since activation, modulation, or blockade of β2-adrenoceptors does not determine this form of hyperreactivity, the possibility that distomers may induce hyperreactivity must be considered. Ocular and vascular responses to distomers of sympathomimetics have long been recognised and, more recently, comparable observations have been made for the airways. Thus, reactivity of guinea-pig airways to spasmogens was increased following exposure to S-isoprenaline, S-salbutamol, or S-terbutaline and exposure to S-isoprenaline or S-salbutamol can intensify symptoms in asthmatics. Regular exposure to the racemate, especially during or following an allergic reaction, predisposes to expression of hyperreactivity, which is nullified, acutely, by the eutomer. These observations imply that biological effects of sympathomimetic distomers may contribute to morbidity and mortality in asthma patients. Chirality 10:262-272, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Systemic and topical administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to reduce periodontal disease progression in both animal models and human subjects. Our present research focuses on single enantiomers of these agents to examine whether enantiospecific therapy will be efficacious in slowing periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of (S)-ketoprofen on experimentally induced alveolar bone loss in beagle dogs. 16, 18-month-old, female beagles were brought to optimal periodontal health over a 2-week pretreatment period. Experimental periodontitis was then induced by placing silk ligatures around premolar and molar teeth and by instituting a soft, plaque-promoting diet. At baseline, animals were randomized to 1 of 4 groups, consisting of 2x daily administration of (1) placebo dentifrice. (2) 0.3% (S)-ketoprofen dentifrice. (3) 3.0% (S)-ketoprofen dentifrice, or (4) 10.0 mg (S)-ketoprofen capsules (p.o.) over a 60 day treatment period. Standardized, periapical radiographs exposed at days 1 and 60 were analyzed by computer-assisted digital radiography in order to assess the rate of alveolar bone loss. Secondary outcomes included technetium 99m-tin-diphosphonate (99mTc-Sn-MDP) uptake and the gingival index. At baseline, no differences were observed among the groups for linear bone height or 99mTc-Sn-MDP uptake ratios. From days I to 60, cohorts differed significantly in terms of bone loss rates (p〈0.001). In particular, beagles treated with systemic or topical (S)-ketoprofen (0.3% or 3.0% dentifrices) exhibited significantly lower mean rates of bone loss compared to placebo treated beagles (p〈0.05). Group differences in mean radiopharmaceutical uptake ratio changes approached significance (ANOVA. p=0.07), where animals treated with topical 03% (S)-ketoprofen demonstrated a reduction and other groups demonstrated elevations over the 60-day dosing period. Treatment cohorts did differ significantly with respect to changes in mean gingival indices (p〈0.05). Animals treated with 0.3% or 3.0% (S)-ketoprofen dentifrice exhibited significantly reduced elevations in gingival index scores as compared to placebo treated animals. These data provide evidence that enantiospecific therapy with (S)-ketoprofen. topically or systemically delivered, may alter the progression of periodontal disease in the beagle dog model.
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