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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Actin gene ; Monocot transformation ; Expression vectors ; Intron ; Translation initiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary It has been previously reported that the 5′ region of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) promoted high-level expression of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene (Gus) in transformed rice cells. In this paper we describe the construction of Act1-based expression vectors for use in monocot transformation. As part of the development of these vectors, we have evaluated the influence of the Act1 first intron, the Act1-Gus junction-encoded N-terminal amino acids, and the sequence context surrounding the Act1 and Gus translation initiation site on Act1-Gus gene expression in rice and maize cells. We have found that addition of Act1 intron 1 to the transcription unit of a Gus reporter gene under control of the cauli-flower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter stimulated GUS activity more than 10-fold in transformed rice cells. Optimization of the sequence context around the Gus translation initiation site resulted in a 4-fold stimulation of Gus expression in transformed rice cells. By utilizing both the Act1 intron 1 and optimized Gus translation initiation site, a 40-fold stimulation in Gus expression from the CaMV 35S promoter has been achieved in transformed rice cells; very similar results were obtained in transformed maize cells. Taken together these results suggest that the Act1-based expression vectors described here should promote the expression of foreign genes in most, if not all, transformed monocot cells to levels that have not previoulsy been attainable with alternative expression vectors.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature biotechnology 21 (2003), S. 996-1002 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] US venture capital (VC) investment in biotechnology increased from less than 4% (of total VC funding) in 2000 (ref. 1) to 9% in 2002 (http://www.ventureeconomics.com). However, of those venture capitalists who claim a significant interest in the life sciences, only a handful have invested in ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature America Inc.
    Nature biotechnology 17 (1999), S. 1071-1074 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Companies must turn to effective process development as a competitive weapon in agricultural ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 14 (1996), S. 715-716 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] The transformation of plants is technically demanding, as the research papers on cassava and maize in this issue of Nature Biotechnology attest. But as the demand for transformation increases, academic and government laboratories are establishing specialist plant transformation facilities (PTFs). ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Company
    Nature biotechnology 12 (1994), S. 883-888 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] Desirable new phenotypes created by the introduction of foreign DNA into plants are frequently unstable following propagation, leading to a loss of the newly acquired traits. This genetic instability is due not to deletion or mutation of the introduced DNA but rather to the inactivation of the ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature biotechnology 22 (2004), S. 817-822 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] A broad spectrum of innovative products is currently under development in the agbiotech industry. Most of these opportunities can be classified as meeting needs in either crop productivity (input traits), such as Bayer CropSciences' (Monheim, Germany) herbicide-tolerant canola, or in food, feed and ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 61 (1990), S. 1509-1517 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Devices&Services Company model AE emissometer was evaluated by measurements at ambient temperature on materials with emittances, ε, from 0.03 to 0.95, including plates of copper and stainless steel, aluminum foil, adhesive tape, wood, paper, and oxide coatings on a metal pipe. A repeatability of ±0.008 units was observed for measurements of ε of working standards over a one-year period. The accuracy of the emissometer was established by measurements on specimens of known ε; an uncertainty of ±0.014 units was determined. These repeatability and accuracy values were confirmed by a round-robin investigation using two working standards whose ε's were measured by three independent laboratories using model AE emissometers and by four laboratories that used absolute methods. The instrument was shown to measure the total hemispherical ε, not the total normal ε. Experimental difficulties were encountered during measurements on a very anisotropic material and in determinations of ε's of materials with transparencies less than 0.1. Critical procedural steps are discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant molecular biology 14 (1990), S. 163-171 
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: rice ; actin ; cDNA sequence ; transcript mapping ; gene structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have isolated and sequenced a full-length cDNA clone containing information for the rice actin gene RAc1. Transcript terminus mapping and sequence alignment between the RAc1 cDNA clone and a previously isolated RAc1 genomic clone were used to determine the structure of the RAc1 gene. This allowed us to make the first complete structural characterization of a plant actin gene. The analysis revealed the presence of a 5′-noncoding exon, separated by an intron, from the first translated exon of the RAc1 gene. This is one of the few reported cases of a plant gene containing such a 5′-noncoding exon. Sequence comparison between the previously isolated plant actin genes suggests that such an exon may be a common feature of plant actin gene structure. The present study also confirms that the rice actin gene family is composed of at least eight unique members.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: actin genes ; differential expression ; gene evolution ; gene family ; rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Four rice (Oryza sativa) genomic actin genes have been characterized. The rice actin genes show a conservation of intron number and position that is characteristic of plant actins. Sequence comparisons revealed that the plant actins generally have a high degree of inter- and intraspecific sequence heterogeneity. However, one rice actin gene has a much higher degree of nucleotide sequence identity to a previously isolated actin sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana than to any other plant actin gene. This leads us to suggest that the two sequences may represent functionally homologous genes which arose from an ancient actin gene lineage that was separated by the divergence of the dicot and monocot plants. Genomic DNA blot analysis showed that the rice actin gene family contains at least eight unique members. RNA hybridization analysis revealed that individual rice actin genes can display different patterns of transcript accumulation. The observed differences in sequence and transcript accumulation patterns suggest that the individual rice actin genes may differ in their transcriptional regulation and/or cellular function.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: defense response ; foreign gene expression ; intron effect ; proteinase inhibitor ; transgenic rice ; wounding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To address the question whether common signal(s) and transduction pathways are used to mediate a systemic wound response in monocot and dicot plants, a fusion of the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pin2) promoter and the bacterial β-glucuronidase gene (Gus)-coding region was introduced into rice. In transgenic rice plants, the expression of the pin2-Gus fusion gene displays a systemic wound response, although the expression level is relatively low. Incorporation of the first intron from the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) into the 5′-untranslated region of the pin2-Gus construct results in high-level, systemically wound-inducible expression of the modified construct in transgenic rice plants. Histochemical analysis shows that this high-level, wound-inducible expression is associated with the vascular tissue in both leaves and roots. Furthermore, the expression of the pin2-Act1 intron-Gus fusion gene in transgenic rice plants can be systemically induced by both methyl jasmonate (MJ) and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that the signal(s) mediating the observed systemic wound response and certain steps of the transduction pathways are conserved between dicot and monocot plants. Transient expression assays show that the pin2-Act1 intron-Gus construct is also actively expressed in transformed cells and tissues of several other monocot plants. Thus, the wound-inducible pin2 promoter in combination with the rice Act1 intron 1 might be used as an efficient regulator for foreign gene expression in transgenic monocot plants.
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