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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We assessed the effects of cold and isolation stress on arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Vasopressin mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry at the cellular level. In posterior magnocellular neurons of the PVN isolation stress for 7 or 14 days increased vasopressin mRNA levels 28 and 29%, respectively, compared to group-housed controls. No significant alterations in vasopressin gene expression were observed in the SON after 7 or 14 days of isolation stress. Scattered magnocellular AVP mRNA-expressing cells of the medial parvocellular PVN showed increases of 19 and 34% after 7 and 14 days of isolation, respectively. We also studied the effect of cold or combined cold and isolation stress on vasopressin gene expression in the PVN and SON. Cold stress for 3 h daily for 4 consecutive days increased AVP mRNA levels in the posterior magnocellular PVN by 15%. Cold-isolated animals showed an increase of 21%. No significant effect on AVP mRNA levels in the SON was observed. In contrast to the posterior magnocellular PVN, cold or cold-isolation stress increased AVP mRNA in magnocellular neurons of the medial parvocellular region of the PVN by 25 and 43%, respectively, relative to control rats. These results suggest that psychological and metabolic stress may be added to the list of stressors that activate the hypothalamo–neurohypophysial system.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Short (5 days)-to long-term (4 months) corticosterone (CORT) administration by injection, pellet implantation, or in the drinking water decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by 20–40% in hippocampus and cortex of intact rats. In contrast to CORT, adrenalectomy (ADX) caused elevations (50–125%) in hippocampus and cortex GFAP within 12 days of surgery that persisted for at least 4 months. CORT replacement of ADX rats decreased GFAP amount in hippocampus and cortex. The effects of long-term CORT and ADX on GFAP in hippocampus and cortex were also seen in striatum, midbrain, and cerebellum, findings suggestive of brain-wide adrenal steroid regulation of this astrocyte protein. The changes in GFAP amount due to CORT and ADX were paralleled by changes in GFAP mRNA, indicating a possible transcriptional or at least genomic effect of adrenal steroids. Glucocorticoid regulation of GFAP was relatively specific; it could not be generalized to other astrocyte proteins or other major structural proteins of neurons. The negative regulation of GFAP and GFAP mRNA by adrenal steroids suggested that increases in GFAP that result from brain injury may be attenuated by glucocorticoids. However, chronic CORT treatment of intact rats did not reverse or reduce the large increases in GFAP caused by trauma-or toxicant-induced brain damage. Thus, glucocorticoids and injury appear to regulate the expression of GFAP through different mechanisms. In contrast to the lack of effects of CORT on brain damage-induced increases in GFAP, CORT treatment begun in 2-week ADX rats, after an increase in GFAP had time to occur, did reverse the ADX-induced increase in GFAP. These results suggest that the increase in GFAP resulting from ADX is not mediated through an injury-linked mechanism.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Sex differences were investigated in cholinergic neurons of the septal-diagonal band region of adult rats subjected to neonatal treatment with 3,3′,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3). Neonatal hyperthyroidism resulted in a 44% increase in specific activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC 2.3.1.6) in adult male rat septal-diagonal band region, whereas no change in ChAT activity could be detected in either dorsal or ventral hippocampus. An increase in muscarinic cholinergic receptors, as measured by [3H]quinu-clidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) binding, was discovered in both septum-diagonal band and dorsal hippocampus of the T3-treated male rats. Immunohistochemistry in the septal-diagonal band region indicated a more intense staining in the neonatally T3-treated adult male rats than in controls, with larger and more abundant ChAT-positive and nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R)-positive varicosities. ChAT immunocytochemistry showed a substantial decrease in cell body area in the medial septum and in the vertical limb of the diagonal band of T3-treated male rats, while cell density increased twofold. Female littermates subjected to the same treatment showed no changes in any of the biochemical or immunohistochemical cholinergic markers. Only in the medial septum was morphology significantly altered in the female T3-treated rats in that ChAT-positive cell body area increased. These results indicate a marked sexual variation in the septal-diagonal band region with respect to the sensitivity of postnatally developing cholinergic neurons to the actions of excess thyroid hormone.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We measured proenkephalin (PEK) mRNA levels in the anterior and medial aspects of the caudate-putamen (CPU) and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the rat by in situ hybridization histochemistry after chronic treatment for 21 days with typical (haloperidol and prolixin) and atypical (molindone, thioridazine, and clozapine) neuroleptics. Chronic administration with these drugs resulted in PEK mRNA levels that were 60–80% higher than controls in the anterior and medial aspects of the CPU but only 25–30% over controls in the NAc. All three atypical neuroleptics studied increased PEK mRNA in the following order: anterior-CPU, thioridazine 〉 clozapine and molindone; medial-CPU, thioridazine and molindone 〉 clozapine; and NAc, thioridazine 〉 〉 molindone and clozapine. Chronic treatment with the specific dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride also caused elevation in PEK mRNA levels in all three brain regions studied whereas the specific serotonin S2 receptor blocker, cinanserin, had no significant effects on PEK mRNA levels. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated levels of the enkephalins in the mesolimbic system may be necessary for antipsychotic activity. They also support the idea that the undesirable motoric signs and symptoms observed after chronic treatment with typical neuroleptics may not be the result of increased levels of enkephalins in the basal ganglia because atypical neuroleptics which are almost totally devoid of these side effects caused similar increases in PEK mRNA in the CPU.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Glucocorticoid hormones are known to affect limbic system structures that have high levels of specific receptors for glucocorticoids, especially the hippocampus (HIPP). To understand how glucocorticoids may affect syn-aptic transmission, we have tested the effects of adrenal removal and glucocorticoid replacement on neurotransmit-ter-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in brain slices from the rat limbic system. Adrenalectomy (ADX) caused an enhancement of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in HIPP, amygdala (AMYG), and septum (SEP). In HIPP, ADX increased the cyclic AMP response to isoproterenol (ISOP) and decreased the response to histamine (HIST). In the AMYG and SEP, ADX did not affect significantly the action of ISOP, but ADX did decrease the response to HIST in AMYG. Administration of dexamethasone or corticosterone reversed the effects of ADX on cyclic AMP accumulation in the HIPP. The dexamethasone action on VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation takes place within 48 h and is most apparent in the mid-range of the VIP dose-response curve. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate neurotrans-mitter-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a fashion that is specific, both for the neurotransmitter involved and for the brain regions affected.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Rats exposed to a low-light, low-noise, novel environment exhibit differences in individual locomotor response to the novelty stressor. The categorization of rats in a locomotor screening procedure as low- (LR) or high-responders (HR), where LRs are in the low locomotor range while HRs belong to the high locomotor range, is significant in that HRs show higher activity in mesencephalic dopaminergic projection neurons, and also show a higher propensity to self-administer psychostimulants and other drugs of abuse compared with LRs. In this study, we examined the neurobiological basis of dopaminergic hyperactivity by comparing in HRs and LRs the steady-state differences in regulatory inputs to mesencephalic (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area: VTA) dopaminergic neurons. In particular, using in situ hybridization, we studied levels of mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the mesencephalon, and for preprodynorphin (DYN), preproenkephalin (PPE), and preprotachykinin (PPT) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens (Acb). We also evaluated TH levels by radioimmunocytochemistry (TH-RIC) in striatal, accumbal and mesencephalic regions. HRs versus LRs had lower levels of neurochemicals belonging to the intrinsic inhibitory input to dopaminergic neurons in the VTA, e.g. lower TH-RIC (–25%) and CCK-mRNA (–48%). In contrast, HRs showed higher levels of parameters belonging to extrinsic facilitating inputs, e.g. higher PPE-mRNA (+ 37%). In addition, HRs had higher DYN-mRNA in Acb (+ 61%), which has been shown to be positively correlated with higher dopaminergic activity. These results enhance our knowledge of the neurobiological correlates of individual rats' propensities to develop drug-intake and provide some putative mechanisms for the dopaminergic hyperactivity that characterizes drug-prone animals.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: During adulthood, neural precursors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus continue to proliferate, leading to the generation of new granule neurons. These recently generated cells transiently express the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM, and are supported by radial glia-like cells that are likely to play a role in neuronal migration and differentiation, or even act as their precursors. Previous reports indicate that treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists stimulates adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and because of the potential therapeutic value of this approach, we were interested in further characterizing the consequences of pharmacologically modulating this process. We treated adult rats with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, CGP43487, and examined cell proliferation, PSA-NCAM expression, and changes in the radial glia cell population in the subgranular zone at different time points. In addition, we sought to determine if this treatment led to changes in cell death or gliotic reactions. The number of proliferating cells in the subgranular region of the dentate gyrus was increased significantly 2 days after treatment and it remained elevated 7 days postinjection. PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive granule cells and nestin-expressing radial glia-like cells also increased in number 7 days after the treatment. In contrast, we did not observe any change in granule cell death, and we were unable to detect any microglial or astroglial reaction during the first 7 days after treatment. Thus, NMDA receptor antagonist treatment serves as a valuable tool to increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus without undesirable collateral deleterious effects.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 300 (1982), S. 648-649 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Hypothalamic nuclei were removed from frozen, 300-jjim thick brain sections, using hollow stainless steel cannulas, 500 or 1,000 |xm in diameter. We pooled tissue from three ovariec-tomized or castrated rats (CD-1 strain, Charles River Biological Laboratories; 150-180 g) for an assay. For ...
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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