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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: ICAM-1 ; VCAM-1 ; Selectins ; Flow ; Atherosclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Extensive monocyte recruitment is an early phenomenon associated with the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting an active role for the involvement of adhesion receptors expressed by endothelial cells. In this study we describe the contribution of hemodynamic shear forces in regulating the expression of a few of the monocyte adhesion receptors, including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and E-selectin on endothelial cells. A parallel plate flow chamber and recirculating flow loop device was used to expose human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to different levels of shear (2–25 dyn/cm2). Subsequently the cells were analyzed either for shear induced changes in the mRNA levels of adhesion receptors by Northern blot analyses or for changes in the surface expression of ICAM-1 using flow cytometry. Results from the fluorescence analysis showed a transient increase in the surface expression of ICAM-1, 12 hr after exposure to 25 dyn/cm2 shear, returning to basal levels within 24 hr. This was quite different from the time dependent response of ICAM-1 to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), where ICAM-1 expression was maximally induced 18–24 hr poststimulus. ICAM-1 mRNA level appeared slightly elevated after exposure to shear for 1 hr, compared to basal values, but dropped below basal levels within 6 hr. This biphasic response was seen irrespective of the magnitude of applied shear stress. VCAM-1 mRNA expression, in contrast, decreased below the baseline expression within an hour after onset of flow, and appeared to be considerably down-regulated within 6 hr. After exposure to shear for 24 hr no increase in mRNA levels could be detected for either molecule, at any shear magnitude. E-selectin mRNA was less responsive to shear stress, especially at the lower magnitudes of shear. After an hour of exposure to flow E-selectin mRNA level appeared slightly reduced compared with control levels, but it remained at this level even after 6 hr of flow. These results indicate that the expression of adhesion receptors is sensitive to local shear stresses in a manner that is molecule specific in the short term even though prolonged exposure to flow results in similar down-regulation for both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A linearized stability analysis has been applied to a fluid flowing in a gravity field between horizontal planes in Couette flow under conditons such that the temperature of the bottom plane exceeds that of the top. It is shown that, under conditions likely to be encountered with polymer solutions, oscillatory instabilities will not be controlling. Criteria are offered for ascertaining when an analysis based upon a second-order fluid model may be expected to yield physically meaningful results. It is also shown that for the fluid model considered, critical conditions for stability are not changed when disturbances which vary in the flow direction are substituted for those which are a function of the coordinate transverse to the flow.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 32 (1988), S. 1053-1060 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A flow apparatus has been developed for the study of the metabolic response of anchorage-dependent cells to a wide range of steady and pulsatile shear stresses under well-controlled conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers were subjected to steady shear stresses of up to 24 dynes/cm2, and the production of prostacyclin was determined. The onset of flow led to a burst in prostacyclin production which decayed to a long term steady state rate (SSR). The SSR of cells exposed to flow was greater than the basal release level, and increased linearly with increasing shear stress. This study demonstrates that shear stress in certain ranges may not be detrimental to mammalian cell metabolism. In fact, throughout the range of shear stresses studied, metabolite production is maximized by maximizing shear stress.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: endothelial cells ; contact inhibition ; cell locomotion ; growth factors ; digital time-lapse recording ; image analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Video microscopy and digital time-lapse recording were used to monitor locomotion and proliferation of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (BPAE) cells cultured with varying concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cell trajectories were reconstructed using a generalized nearest-neighbor algorithm and analyzed to determine how cell motility is affected by cell-cell collisions, cell divisions, and increasing cell density. The temporal evolution patterns of the average speed of locomotion for all cells in a culture were computed and the effects of varying bFGF concentrations were analyzed. Intermediate concentrations of bFGF (30 and 50 ng/mL) significantly increased the speed of locomotion above the levels we observed with 0 and 100 ng/mL concentrations of bFGF. Increases in cell density due to proliferation were immediately accompanied by a decrease in the average speed of locomotion of the cell population. Finally, the effect of bFGF concentration on the overall cell proliferation rates was assessed. With the addition of 30 or 50 ng/mL of bFGF to the culture media, the observed cell proliferation rates increased significantly. The proliferation rates decreased when the bFGF concentration increased to 100 ng/mL. These results show that bFGF concentrations that increase the motility of BPAE cells also increase the observed cell proliferation rates. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 16 (1972), S. 2901-2908 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The importance of (τ11 - τ22)/τ12 (sometimes called the Weissenberg number) in determining the onset of melt fracture is examined using classical linearized hydrodynamic stability analysis. The constitutive relation used is that proposed by Bird and Carreau. It is shown that simple shearing flow of a viscoelastic fluid becomes unstable at a critical value of the Weissenberg number. Implications with regard to polymer processing are discussed.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: endothelium ; genetic expression ; protein synthesis ; shear stress ; signal transduction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mammalian cells responds to physical forces by altering their growth rate, morphology, metabolism, and genetic expression. We have studied the mechanism by which these cells detect the presence of mechanical stress and convert this force into intracellular signals. As our model systems, we have studied cultured human endothelial cells, which line the blood vessels and forms the interface between the blood and the vessel wall. These cell responds within minutes to the initiation of flow by increasing their arachidonic acid metabolism and increasing the level of the intracellular second messengers inositol trisphosphate and calcium ion concentration. With continued exposure to arterial levels of wall shear stress for up to 24 h, endothelial cells increase the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and tPA messenger RNA (mRNA) and decrease the expression of endothelin peptide and endothelin mRNA. Since the initiation of flow also causes enhanced convective mass transfer to the endothelial cell monolayer, we have investigated the role of enhanced convection of adenosine trisphosphate (ATP) to the cell surface in eliciting a cellular response by monitoring cytosolic calcium concentrations on the single cell level and by computing the concentration profile of ATP in a parallel-plate flow geometry. Our result demonstrate that endothelial cells respond in very specific ways to the initiation of flow and that mass transfer and fluid shear stress can both play a role in the modulation of intracellular signal transduction and metabolism.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluid shear stress can stimulate secretion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by cultured human endothelial cells, while plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 secretion remains unstimulated. To determine whether hemodynamically induced changes in tPA messenger RNA (mRNA) levels also occur, primary cultures from the same harvst of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were either maintained in stationary culture or exposed to arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) for 24 hours. Total cellular RNA was isolated from the shear stressed and stationary cultures and the relative levels of tPA mRNA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA were determined using a coupled reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction method. As indicated by the amount of amplification product, tPA mRNA levels were many fold higher (〉 10) in endothelial cells subjected to shear stress for 24 hours than in stationary controls. In contrast, mRNA levels for GAPDH were similar in control and shear stressed cells. The constancy of the measured GAPDH signal indicated that the tPA response was a selective effect of fluid shear stress. When a similar polymerase chain reaction method was used, the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were found not to vary in comparison to GAPDH mRNA after 24 hours of shear stress. These results indicate that enhancement of the fibrinolytic potential of endothelial cells in response to hemodynamic forces could involve transcriptional events.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 12 (1980), S. 159-180 
    ISSN: 0066-4189
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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