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  • 1
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Cholecystokinin ; Conscious dogs ; L364718 ; Pancreatic polypeptide ; Pancreatic secretion
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Enzymatic digestion ; Mouse ; Neuromedin N ; Neurotensin ; Precursor processing ; Region-specific radioimmunoassay ; Reverse phase HPLC
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: CCK ; Gastrin ; Gastrin-releasing peptide ; PP
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 30 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  There are conflicting opinions about the frequency range of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds. Some authors claim that the upper limit is about 650 Hz. The aim was to test the hypothesis that TMJ sounds may contain frequencies well above 650 Hz but that significant amounts of their energy are lost if the vibrations are recorded using contact sensors and/or travel far through the head tissues. Time–frequency distributions of 172 TMJ clickings (three subjects) were compared between recordings with one microphone in the ear canal and a skin contact transducer above the clicking joint and between recordings from two microphones, one in each ear canal. The energy peaks of the clickings recorded with a microphone in the ear canal on the clicking side were often well above 650 Hz and always in a significantly higher area (range 117–1922 Hz, P 〈 0·05 or lower) than in recordings obtained with contact sensors (range 47–375 Hz) or in microphone recordings from the opposite ear canal (range 141–703 Hz). Future studies are required to establish normative frequency range values of TMJ sounds but need methods also capable of recording the high frequency vibrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 29 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  Differential diagnosis depends in cases with disk displacement on accurate identification of sound source. Mistakes may occur when clicking from one temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is heard on both sides of the head at auscultation and neither examiner nor patient, is sure about side. The hypothesis was that the head tissues affect spectral characteristics of TMJ sounds and that differences due to different positioning of sensors can be used in localization of source. The aim was to compare bilateral electronic recordings of unilateral TMJ sounds to obtain and compare attenuation, phase shift and time delay. Recordings were made from 12 subjects with unilateral clicking. Small electret condenser microphones, bandwidth 40–20 000 Hz, were placed at the openings of the auditory canals and the sounds were recorded at a sampling rate of 48 000 Hz. The head tissues acted as a filter causing a frequency dependent attenuation and phase shift. There was a time difference between the ipsi- and the contra lateral recordings, the latter always having a longer delay time (range 0·2–1·2 ms, group mean 0·68 ms, s.d. 0·292 ms). In conclusion, spectral analysis of bilateral electronic TMJ sound recordings is of diagnostic value when bilateral clicking is heard at auscultation and can help to avoid diagnosing a silent joint as clicking.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of oral rehabilitation 30 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary  It is of clinical interest to record the amplitudes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds. The aim was to test the hypothesis that sealing the meatus, when placing a microphone in the ear canal affects such recording by increasing the sound pressure level (SPL). Bilateral recordings of 249 TMJ clickings were made from three subjects, using sampling rates of 48 or 96 kHz and 24 bits A/D conversion, with and without the ear canals sealed by Silicone putty. The peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) was higher (P 〈 0·001) when the ear canal was sealed (range of mean differences was 8·3–24·9 dB peSPL). This means that the signal to noise ratio can be improved by sealing the meatus because the electronic noise level is not increased. Most important is that the dynamic range of the clicking sounds was 62 dB that is larger than the effective dynamic range of a 16 bits sound card. Future studies are needed to establish normative peSPL values. However, cards with at least 24 bits A/D conversion will be required, especially in patients with suspected disc displacement with reduction, where the difference in loudness between opening and closing clicking often is large.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Albeit never substantiated through experimental and clinical evidence, the theoretical linchpin of the mechanics of a so-called whiplash injury of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the postulate that a pre-existing depressor force (continual anchoring force), generated by the anterior suprahyoid (SH) muscles, will always act on the mandible and cause traumatic mouth opening (anterior acceleration of the TMJ condyles) when the neck is extended (posterior acceleration of the head). To test aspects of this postulate, six subjects assumed the positions of neutral (0°), medium (32°) and maximum (58°) neck extension while the mandible was in its postural positions of rest and light centric occlusion. By means of surface electromyography, it was shown that the relative contractile activities of the anterior SH muscles never exceeded 7·3% of the contractile activity required to anchor the mandible in a position of maximum depression. By means of electrognathography, it was shown that the maxillary and mandibular incisors were never separated by more than 2·6 mm during neutral, medium, and maximum extension of the neck. In other words, during neck extensions there was no evidence of a continual or induced voluntary or involuntary depressor force that would and could anchor the mandible in a position of traumatic mouth opening. Accordingly, and in agreement with other biophysical and biomedical evidence, it was concluded that there is no foundation for the pseudoscientific speculations and unsubstantiated opinions offered in support of a concept and diagnosis of a so-called TMJ whiplash injury. Additionally, this study found co-activation of cervical flexor muscles and mandibular elevator as well as depressor muscles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2036
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Over the last decade major advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms and mediators of inflammation that hold the promise of the development of new therapies for inflammatory disease. While much is to be gleaned from the application of new technologies, assessment of the age-old host–parasite relationship may also provide insights on how to counter pathological inflammatory events. In the case of inflammatory bowel disease [particularly Crohn's disease, which is associated with T helper 1 (Th1) events] it is proposed that infection with parasitic helminths would be beneficial: the paradigm being that of immune deviation, where Th2 cytokines mobilized in response to the helminth will prevent or antagonize the disease-promoting Th1 events in the gut. The situation is unlikely to be this simple. Here we review and critique the data in support of helminth therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, drawing attention to the gaps in knowledge and presenting a view on how the field may be advanced. While the concept of helminth therapy may be superficially unappealing, this review may convince the reader of the value of more extensive analyses of the impact of helminth infection on enteric inflammation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To study mandibular motions with respect to time (kinematics) and the forces causing and resulting from these motions (kinetics), four subjects generated rapid depression and elevation of the mandible (displacement of 0·224 m; peak velocity of 0·237 m s−1 during depression and 0·269 m s−1 during elevation). The motion of depression (duration of 0·195 s; kinetic energy of 2·072×10−3 J) could be divided into a phase of acceleration (2·742 m s−2; +0·28 gn) and a phase of deceleration (2·264 m s−2; −0·23 gn), and the terminal excess kinetic energy of depression was absorbed and dissipated by, primarily, the temporomandibular joint. Similarly, the ensuing motion of elevation (duration of 0·182 s; kinetic energy of 2·948×10−3 J) could be divided into a phase of acceleration (3·498 m s−2; +0·36 gn) and a phase of deceleration (2·931 m s−2; −0·30 gn), and the terminal excess kinetic energy of elevation was absorbed and dissipated by, primarily, the dentitions and, secondarily, by the temporomandibular joint. Rapid depression of the mandible appeared to be under the central control of a preprogrammed motor command, and ensuing rapid elevation of the mandible appeared to be under the peripheral control of a segmental and/or transcortical reflex. During rapid depression and elevation of the mandible, the anterior suprahyoid, anterior temporalis, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were myoelectrically active 56%, 73%, and 71% of the time, respectively, and myomechanically active 42%, 59%, and 57% of the time, respectively. Over a follow-up period of 12 months, the studied mandibular motions did not cause injury to the dentitions and temporomandibular joint.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We analysed 25 chondritic porous dust particles by window-less energy-dispersive analysis5 for major elements (6Z28). Twenty of these dust particles were then embedded in epoxy and cut into thin sections using an ultramicrotome equipped with a diamond knife6. The section thickness is -100 nm. Small ...
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