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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our approach was to identify sibships that had more than one individual affected with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and for which sufficient individuals could be typed to permit unambiguous assignment of haplotypes5. The study began in Singapore and Hong Kong in 1976 and extended in 1983 to ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Endometrial cancer ; estrogens ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: While there are a number of benefits to the health of postmenopausal women from use of unopposed estrogens, the increased risk of endometrial cancer related to these hormones has led many women to use combined estrogen-progestogen therapy instead, or not to use hormones at all. Most women who take hormones do so only in the early portion of their postmenopausal years, so the risk of endometrial cancer following cessation of use might bear heavily on the overal risk/benefit evaluation. We analyzed data from a case-control study of women in western Washington (United States) to assess the magnitude of excess risk of endometrial cancer following discontinuation of estrogen use. Cases (n=661) consisted of women aged 45 to 74 diagnosed between 1985 and 1991 who resided in one of three counties in Washington State. Controls (n=865) were identified by random-digit dialing. Subjects were interviewed in-person to ascertain current and prior hormone use. The analysis was restricted to women who had not received combined estrogen-progestin therapy. Among women who had used unopposed estrogens at some time, risk of endometrial cancer declined as time since last use increased. Nonetheless, even among women who used these hormones for just a few years, the risk remained elevated by 30 to 70 percent almost a decade after cessation. These results, combined with those of most (but not all) other studies of this issue, suggest that a woman who has discontinued unopposed estrogen therapy may retain a small increased risk of endometrial cancer for a long period of time.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Age ; melanoma ; migration ; nevus ; pigmentation ; sunlight ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A survey to ascertain factors associated with benign melanocytic nevi or moles was conducted among randomly-selected White adults (aged 18 to 50 years) in Washington State (United States). Participants of the telephone interview in 1990–91 were questioned about lifetime places of residence and constitutional factors. Subjects counted raised nevi on their arms at the end of the survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the risk for two or more nevi compared with no nevi. Individuals who resided in warmer areas and lower latitudes than Washington State were at higher risk of having multiple nevi. This association held for residence at birth, during childhood, adolescence, and over lifetime: an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3 (95 percent confidence interval =1.2–4.3) for lifetime average daily maximum temperature of ≥64°F compared with 58.9°F, and similar ORs of 2.1 for adolescence and 1.8 for childhood. These associations remained significant after adjusting for potential confounding effects of constitutional factors and for childhood sunburns as a potential mechanism. Risk of multiple nevi was reduced for both early age at migration and longer duration of stay in Washington. These data are consistent with the importance of childhood and adolescent sun exposure in the etiology of nevi, but also suggest an effect of lifetime sun exposure.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    BJOG 94 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: All cases (884) of placental abruption reported on Washington State birth or fetal death certificates in 1980 and 1981 were compared with 789 randomly selected births from the same time period. The incidence of reported cases of placental abruption was 6·5 per 1000 total births. The combined stillbirth and first month death rate of all abruption cases was 21%. Increased risks of placental abruption were associated with pre-eclampsia, diabetes, and unmarried status. Neither parity nor maternal age was associated with an increased risk. Infants born after abruption were significantly smaller-for-gestation than control infants, more likely to be male, and had malformations more frequently than control infants. Apgar scores of liveborn abruption infants were significantly lower than those of controls after adjustment for infant weight, gestational age, and sex.
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