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    Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large proportion of the US population and is considered to be a metabolic predisposition to liver cancer. However, the role of adaptive immune responses in NAFLD-promoted HCC is largely unknown. Here we show, in mouse models and human samples, that dysregulation of lipid metabolism in NAFLD causes a selective loss of intrahepatic CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T lymphocytes, leading to accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis. We also demonstrate that CD4(+) T lymphocytes have greater mitochondrial mass than CD8(+) T lymphocytes and generate higher levels of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of mitochondrial function by linoleic acid, a fatty acid accumulated in NAFLD, causes more oxidative damage than other free fatty acids such as palmitic acid, and mediates selective loss of intrahepatic CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In vivo blockade of ROS reversed NAFLD-induced hepatic CD4(+) T lymphocyte decrease and delayed NAFLD-promoted HCC. Our results provide an unexpected link between lipid dysregulation and impaired anti-tumour surveillance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26934227
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; T-CELLS ; PROGRESSION ; MELANOMA ; GENE-THERAPY ; ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS ; TGF-BETA ; TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODEL ; immune cells ; SYNTHETIC PEPTIDE
    Abstract: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a powerful promoter of cancer progression and a key target for antitumor therapy. As cancer cells exhibit active cholesterol metabolism, high density lipoproteins (HDLs) appear as an attractive delivery system for anticancer TGFbeta-inhibitory molecules. We constructed a plasmid encoding a potent TGF-beta-blocking peptide (P144) linked to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) through a flexible linker (pApoLinkerP144). The ApoLinkerP144 sequence was then incorporated into a hepatotropic adeno-associated vector (AAVApoLinkerP144). The aim was to induce hepatocytes to produce HDLs containing a modified ApoA-I capable of blocking TGF-beta. We observed that transduction of the murine liver with pApoLinkerP144 led to the appearance of a fraction of circulating HDL containing the fusion protein. These HDLs were able to attenuate TGF-beta signaling in the liver and to enhance IL-12 -mediated IFN-gamma production. Treatment of liver metastasis of MC38 colorectal cancer with AAVApoLinkerP144 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth and enhanced expression of IFN-gamma and GM-CSF in cancerous tissue. ApoLinkerP144 also delayed MC38 liver metastasis in Rag2-/-IL2rgamma-/- immunodeficient mice. This effect was associated with downregulation of TGF-beta target genes essential for metastatic niche conditioning. Finally, in a subset of ret transgenic mice, a model of aggressive spontaneous metastatic melanoma, AAVApoLinkerP144 delayed tumor growth in association with increased CD8+ T cell numbers in regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, modification of HDLs to transport TGF-beta-blocking molecules is a novel and promising approach to inhibit the growth of liver metastases by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24797128
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  • 4
    Abstract: Oncogene-induced senescence causes hepatocytes to secrete cytokines, which induce their immune-mediated clearance to prevent tumor initiation, a process termed "senescence surveillance." However, senescent hepatocytes give rise to hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), if the senescence program is bypassed or if senescent cells are not cleared. Here, we show context-specific roles for CCR2+ myeloid cells in liver cancer. Senescence surveillance requires the recruitment and maturation of CCR2+ myeloid cells, and CCR2 ablation caused outgrowth of HCC. In contrast, HCC cells block the maturation of recruited myeloid precursors, which, through NK cell inhibition, promote growth of murine HCC and worsen the prognosis and survival of human HCC patients. Thus, while senescent hepatocyte-secreted chemokines suppress liver cancer initiation, they may accelerate the growth of fully established HCC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27728804
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large proportion of the US population and is considered to be a metabolic predisposition to liver cancer. However, the role of adaptive immune responses in NAFLD-promoted HCC is largely unknown. Here we show, in mouse models and human samples, that dysregulation of lipid metabolism in NAFLD causes a selective loss of intrahepatic CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T lymphocytes, leading to accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis. We also demonstrate that CD4(+) T lymphocytes have greater mitochondrial mass than CD8(+) T lymphocytes and generate higher levels of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of mitochondrial function by linoleic acid, a fatty acid accumulated in NAFLD, causes more oxidative damage than other free fatty acids such as palmitic acid, and mediates selective loss of intrahepatic CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In vivo blockade of ROS reversed NAFLD-induced hepatic CD4(+) T lymphocyte decrease and delayed NAFLD-promoted HCC. Our results provide an unexpected link between lipid dysregulation and impaired anti-tumour surveillance.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786464/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786464/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Chi -- Kesarwala, Aparna H -- Eggert, Tobias -- Medina-Echeverz, Jose -- Kleiner, David E -- Jin, Ping -- Stroncek, David F -- Terabe, Masaki -- Kapoor, Veena -- ElGindi, Mei -- Han, Miaojun -- Thornton, Angela M -- Zhang, Haibo -- Egger, Michele -- Luo, Ji -- Felsher, Dean W -- McVicar, Daniel W -- Weber, Achim -- Heikenwalder, Mathias -- Greten, Tim F -- ZIA BC011345-06/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIABC011303/PHS HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):253-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16969. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gastrointestinal Malignancy Section, Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Cell Processing Section, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute of Surgical Pathology, University and University Hospital Zurich, Zurich 8091, Switzerland. ; Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University, California 94305, USA. ; Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Institute of Virology, Technische Universitat Munchen/Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich 81675, Germany. ; Division of Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934227" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology/pathology ; *Carcinogenesis/immunology/pathology ; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/*immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; Case-Control Studies ; Choline/metabolism ; Diet ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genes, myc ; Hepatocytes/metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Linoleic Acid/metabolism ; Lipid Metabolism ; Liver/immunology/pathology ; Liver Neoplasms/*immunology/metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Methionine/deficiency ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/metabolism/pathology ; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Oxidative Stress ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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