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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Much of the connective tissue degradation that takes place in periodontal diseases is mediated by proteolytic enzymes. Previous studies have focused on the action of proteinases released by invading polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages, and bacterial enzymes. In view of recent work establishing that resident connective tissue cells can be induced by cytokines to bring about the destruction of their own matrix, we propose a new hypothesis. In this we envisage that a critical step is the interaction of bacterial antigens with inflammatory cells, resulting in the production of a cytokine, interleukin-1. Our interpretation of in vitro evidence is that the loss of connective tissue attachment and bone matrix resorption in periodontal diseases is mediated by metalloproteinases such as collagenase and stromelysin released by cells of the periodontium. Such proteolytic destruction can be induced by interleukin-1, whose production may not be dependent on a specific microbial flora but may be triggered by a number of organisms. It is now clear that interleukin-1 has multiple actions on both immune and non-immune cells; these include the induction of lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation and the stimulation of bone and cartilage resorption, and prostaglandin and metalloproteinase synthesis by connective tissues. It seems likely that further knowledge about the production and function of this cytokine will have an increasing impact in many diseases that involve resorption, particularly since interleukin-1-like molecules can be produced by cell types other than monocytes/macrophages, including keratinocytes and fibroblasts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) collagenase, gelatinase A (72 kDa gela-tinase), stromelysin, and their specific inhibitor TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases), were immunolocalized using specific polyclonal antisera in gingival tissues from 21 patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. Monoclonal antibodies against macrophages (Leu-M5), B cells (Leu-14), helper T cells (OKT4), suppressor T cells (OKT8) and the HLA-DR epitope were also used to identify leukocyte subsets. MMPs were observed in connective tissues at sites that histologically showed signs of remodelling. The number and distribution of positive cells varied widely, however, not only between individual biopsy specimens, but also within the same specimen. The same was true for the composition and distribution of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Moreover, although there was a positive correlation between the number of MMP-producing cells and the severity of inflammation in some specimens, for others with comparable leukocyte subset scoring the number was reduced and sometimes absent altogether. Cells secreting MMPs were fibroblasts, macrophages and epithelial cells. It was not possible to determine unequivocally whether a MMP-positive cell within the connective tissue was a fibroblast or a macrophage, since the antisera recognise both fibroblast and macrophage MMPs and the different fixation requirements for MMPs (4% paraformaldehyde) and Leu-M5 (acetone) precluded co-localization on the same section. TIMP-1 was immunolocalized within connective tissue cells at sites of tissue remodelling. Our results support the hypothesis that tissue-derived MMPs may be involved in tissue remodelling in periodontal disease and conclusively demonstrate that epithelial cells may be involved as well as connective tissue cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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