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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; PATHWAYS ; MUTATIONS ; sensitivity ; FUTURE ; THERAPIES
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Multiple investigational drugs are currently explored in cancer patient populations defined by specific biomarkers. This demands a new process of patient selection for clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting January 1, 2012, preemptive biomarker profiling was offered at the West German Cancer Center to all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) or colorectal cancer (CRC), who met generic study inclusion criteria. Tumour specimens were subjected to prespecified profiling algorithms to detect 'actionable biomarkers' by amplicon sequencing, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The clinical course was closely monitored to offer trial participation whenever applicable. RESULTS: Within 12 months, 267 patients (188 NSCLC, 79 CRC) were profiled. Estimated additional cost for biomarker profiling was 219615.51 EUR excluding histopathology workup and administration. The most prevalent biomarkers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma were KRAS mutations (29%), loss of PTEN expression (18%), EGFR mutations (9%), HER2 amplification (5%) and BRAF mutations (3%), while the prevalence of ALK translocations and PIK3CA mutations was extremely low. In pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma FGFR1 amplifications were found in 15%, PTEN expression was lost in 20% and DDR2 was mutated in a single case. KRAS mutations (41%) predominated in CRC, followed by loss of PTEN expression (16%), PIK3CA (5%) and BRAF (5%) mutations. So far 13 patients (5%) have entered biomarker-stratified clinical trials. Therapeutic decisions for approved drugs were guided in another 45 patients (17%). CONCLUSION: Preemptive biomarker profiling can be implemented into the diagnostic algorithm of a large Comprehensive Cancer Center. Substantial investments in diagnostics and administration are required.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23876834
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy is effective in metastatic gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, but has not yet been evaluated in the context of resectable patients. Here we report findings from the phase 2 part of the phase 2/3 FLOT4 trial, which compared histopathological regression in patients treated with a docetaxel-based triplet chemotherapy versus an anthracycline-based triplet chemotherapy before surgical resection. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, phase 2/3 study, eligible participants were recruited from 28 German oncology centres. Patients with resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer who had clinical stage cT2 or higher, nodal positive (cN+) disease, or both were randomly assigned (1:1) to either three preoperative and three postoperative 3-week cycles of intravenous epirubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1, intravenous cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on day 1, and either fluorouracil 200 mg/m2 as continuous intravenous infusion or capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 orally (two doses of 625 mg/m2 per day) on days 1 to 21 (ECF/ECX group) or four preoperative and four postoperative 2-week cycles of docetaxel 50 mg/m2, intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, intravenous leucovorin 200 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 2600 mg/m2 as a 24 h infusion, all on day 1 (FLOT group). Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive web-response system based on a sequence generated with blocks (block size 2) stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, location of primary tumour, age, and nodal status. No masking was done. Central assessment of pathological regression was done according to the Becker criteria. The primary endpoint was pathological complete regression (tumour regression grade TRG1a) and was analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment excluding patients who had surgery but did not provide resection specimens for central evaluation. The study (including the phase 3 part) has completed enrolment, but follow-up is ongoing and this is an interim analysis. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01216644. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2010, and Aug 10, 2012, 300 patients (152 patients in the ECF/ECX group; 148 patients in the FLOT group) were enrolled into the phase 2 part of the study, 265 of whom (137 in the ECF/ECX group; 128 in the FLOT group) were assessable on a modified intention-to-treat basis. 119 (93%) of 128 patients in the FLOT group and 126 (92%) of 137 patients in the ECF/ECX group were given all planned preoperative cycles of treatment. FLOT was associated with significantly higher proportions of patients achieving pathological complete regression than was ECF/ECX (20 [16%; 95% CI 10-23] of 128 patients vs eight [6%; 3-11] of 137 patients; p=0.02). 44 (40%) of 111 patients in the ECF/ECX group and 30 (25%) of 119 patients in the FLOT group had at least one serious adverse event involving a perioperative medical or surgical complication. The most common non-surgical grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (52 [38%] of 137 patients in the ECF/ECX group vs 67 [52%] of 128 patients in the FLOT group), leucopenia (28 [20%] vs 36 [28%]), nausea (23 [17%] vs 12 [9%]), infection (16 [12%] vs 15 [12%]), fatigue (19 [14%] vs 11 [9%]), and vomiting (13 [10%] vs four [3%]). INTERPRETATION: Perioperative FLOT was active and feasible to administer, and might represent an option for patients with locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-eosophageal junction adenocarcinoma. FUNDING: None.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27776843
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  • 3
    Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cetuximab and panitumumab, are a mainstay of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment. However, a significant number of patients suffer from primary or acquired resistance. RAS mutations are negative predictors of clinical efficacy of anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with mCRC. Oncogenic RAS activates the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, which are considered the main effectors of resistance. However, the relative impact of these pathways in RAS-mutant CRC is less defined. A better mechanistic understanding of RAS-mediated resistance may guide development of rational intervention strategies. To this end we developed cancer models for functional dissection of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in vitro and in vivo. To selectively activate MAPK- or AKT-signaling we expressed conditionally activatable RAF-1 and AKT in cancer cells. We found that either pathway independently protected sensitive cancer models against anti-EGFR antibody treatment in vitro and in vivo. RAF-1- and AKT-mediated resistance was associated with increased expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins. Biomarkers of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation correlated with inferior outcome in a cohort of mCRC patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy. Dual pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K and MEK successfully sensitized primary resistant CRC models to anti-EGFR therapy. In conclusion, combined targeting of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling, but not single pathways, may be required to enhance the efficacy of anti-EGFR antibody therapy in patients with RAS-mutated CRC as well as in RAS wild type tumors with clinical resistance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28507280
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  • 4
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Chromosomal rearrangements involving ROS1 define a rare entity of lung adenocarcinomas with exquisite sensitivity to molecularly targeted therapy. We report clinical outcomes and genomic findings of patients with ROS1-positive lung cancer who were prospectively identified within a multiplex biomarker profiling program at the West German Cancer Center. METHODS: Standardized immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and hotspot mutation analyses were performed in 1345 patients with advanced cancer, including 805 patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological data were retrieved from the institutional database. RESULTS: ROS1 positivity by IHC analysis was detected in 25 patients with lung cancer (4.8% of lung adenocarcinomas), including 13 patients (2.5%) with ROS1 FISH positivity with a cutoff of at least 15% of events. Of the ROS1 IHC analysis-positive cases, 36% presented with concomitant oncogenic driver mutations involving EGFR (six cases, five of which were clinically validated by response to EGFR-targeting agents), KRAS (two cases), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha gene (PIK3CA), and BRAF. Three cases initially classified as ROS1 FISH-negative passed the threshold of 15% positive events when repeat biopsies were analyzed at progression. The median overall survival of the ROS1-positive patients (104 months) was significantly superior to that of the 261 patients with EGFR/anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS1-negative lung adenocarcinoma (24.4 months, p = 0.044). Interestingly, the overall survival of the 13 ROS1-positive patients with lung cancer from initiation of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy was significantly prolonged when compared with that of 169 pemetrexed-treated patients with EGFR/anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS1-negative adenocarcinoma (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ROS1-positive metastatic lung adenocarcinomas frequently harbor concomitant oncogenic driver mutations. Levels of ROS1 FISH-positive events are variable over time. This heterogeneity provides additional therapeutic options if discovered by multiplex biomarker testing and repeat biopsies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27575422
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-11
    Description: The inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel Kir4.1 ( KCNJ10 ) carries out important physiologic roles in epithelial cells of the kidney, astrocytes in the central nervous system, and stria vascularis of the inner ear. Loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ10 lead to EAST/SeSAME syndrome, which is characterized by epilepsy, ataxia, renal salt wasting, and sensorineural deafness. Although genetic approaches have been indispensable for establishing the importance of Kir4.1 in the normal function of these tissues, the availability of pharmacological tools for acutely manipulating the activity of Kir4.1 in genetically normal animals has been lacking. We therefore carried out a high-throughput screen of 76,575 compounds from the Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology library for small-molecule modulators of Kir4.1. The most potent inhibitor identified was 2-(2-bromo-4-isopropylphenoxy)- N -(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)acetamide (VU0134992). In whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments, VU0134992 inhibits Kir4.1 with an IC 50 value of 0.97 µ M and is 9-fold selective for homomeric Kir4.1 over Kir4.1/5.1 concatemeric channels (IC 50 = 9 µ M) at –120 mV. In thallium (Tl + ) flux assays, VU0134992 is greater than 30-fold selective for Kir4.1 over Kir1.1, Kir2.1, and Kir2.2; is weakly active toward Kir2.3, Kir6.2/SUR1, and Kir7.1; and is equally active toward Kir3.1/3.2, Kir3.1/3.4, and Kir4.2. This potency and selectivity profile is superior to Kir4.1 inhibitors amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and fluoxetine. Medicinal chemistry identified components of VU0134992 that are critical for inhibiting Kir4.1. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis identified pore-lining glutamate 158 and isoleucine 159 as critical residues for block of the channel. VU0134992 displayed a large free unbound fraction ( f u ) in rat plasma ( f u = 0.213). Consistent with the known role of Kir4.1 in renal function, oral dosing of VU0134992 led to a dose-dependent diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis in rats. Thus, VU0134992 represents the first in vivo active tool compound for probing the therapeutic potential of Kir4.1 as a novel diuretic target for the treatment of hypertension.
    Print ISSN: 0026-895X
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-0111
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Mutations that induce loss of function (LOF) or dysfunction of the human KCNQ1 channel are responsible for susceptibility to a life-threatening heart rhythm disorder, the congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). Hundreds of KCNQ1 mutations have been identified, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for impaired function are poorly understood. We investigated the impact of 51 KCNQ1 variants with mutations located within the voltage sensor domain (VSD), with an emphasis on elucidating effects on cell surface expression, protein folding, and structure. For each variant, the efficiency of trafficking to the plasma membrane, the impact of proteasome inhibition, and protein stability were assayed. The results of these experiments combined with channel functional data provided the basis for classifying each mutation into one of six mechanistic categories, highlighting heterogeneity in the mechanisms resulting in channel dysfunction or LOF. More than half of the KCNQ1 LOF mutations examined were seen to destabilize the structure of the VSD, generally accompanied by mistrafficking and degradation by the proteasome, an observation that underscores the growing appreciation that mutation-induced destabilization of membrane proteins may be a common human disease mechanism. Finally, we observed that five of the folding-defective LQTS mutant sites are located in the VSD S0 helix, where they interact with a number of other LOF mutation sites in other segments of the VSD. These observations reveal a critical role for the S0 helix as a central scaffold to help organize and stabilize the KCNQ1 VSD and, most likely, the corresponding domain of many other ion channels.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Purpose: We describe herein a novel P447_L455 deletion in the C2 domain of PIK3CA in a patient with an ER + breast cancer with an excellent response to the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib. Although PIK3CA deletions are relatively rare, a significant portion of deletions cluster within amino acids 446–460 of the C2 domain, suggesting these residues are critical for p110α function. Experimental Design: A computational structural model of PIK3CA delP447-L455 in complex with the p85 regulatory subunit and MCF10A cells expressing PIK3CA delP447-L455 and PIK3CA H450_P458del were used to understand the phenotype of C2 domain deletions. Results: Computational modeling revealed specific favorable inter-residue contacts that would be lost as a result of the deletion, predicting a significant decrease in binding energy. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed reduced binding of the C2 deletion mutants with p85 compared with wild-type p110α. The MCF10A cells expressing PIK3CA C2 deletions exhibited growth factor–independent growth, an invasive phenotype, and higher phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, and S6 compared with parental MCF10A cells. All these changes were ablated by alpelisib treatment. Conclusions: C2 domain deletions in PIK3CA generate PI3K dependence and should be considered biomarkers of sensitivity to PI3K inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1426–35. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-03-08
    Description: The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate induces modulatory actions via the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus), which are class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We determined the structure of the human mGlu1 receptor seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain bound to a negative allosteric modulator, FITM, at a resolution of 2.8 angstroms. The modulator binding site partially overlaps with the orthosteric binding sites of class A GPCRs but is more restricted than most other GPCRs. We observed a parallel 7TM dimer mediated by cholesterols, which suggests that signaling initiated by glutamate's interaction with the extracellular domain might be mediated via 7TM interactions within the full-length receptor dimer. A combination of crystallography, structure-activity relationships, mutagenesis, and full-length dimer modeling provides insights about the allosteric modulation and activation mechanism of class C GPCRs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991565/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991565/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Huixian -- Wang, Chong -- Gregory, Karen J -- Han, Gye Won -- Cho, Hyekyung P -- Xia, Yan -- Niswender, Colleen M -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Meiler, Jens -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Conn, P Jeffrey -- Stevens, Raymond C -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK097376/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM080403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM099842/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH062646/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH090192/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS031373/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS078262/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS031373/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):58-64. doi: 10.1126/science.1249489. Epub 2014 Mar 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603153" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Allosteric Site ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Benzamides/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cholesterol ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Humans ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Thiazoles/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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