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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-28
    Description: BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to standard operating procedures (SOPs) during handling and processing of whole blood is one of the most frequent causes affecting the quality of serum and plasma. Yet, the quality of blood samples is of the utmost importance for reliable, conclusive research findings, valid diagnostics, and appropriate therapeutic decisions. METHODS: UHPLC-MS-driven nontargeted metabolomics was applied to identify biomarkers that reflected time to processing of blood samples, and a targeted UHPLC-MS analysis was used to quantify and validate these biomarkers. RESULTS: We found that (4E,14Z)-sphingadienine-C18-1-phosphate (S1P-d18:2) was suitable for the reliable assessment of the pronounced changes in the quality of serum and plasma caused by errors in the phase between collection and centrifugation of whole blood samples. We rigorously validated S1P-d18:2, which included the use of practicality tests on 〉1400 randomly selected serum and plasma samples that were originally collected during single- and multicenter trials and then stored in 11 biobanks in 3 countries. Neither life-threatening disease states nor strenuous metabolic challenges (i.e., high-intensity exercise) affected the concentration of S1P-d18:2. Cutoff values for sample assessment were defined (plasma, ≤0.085 μg/mL; serum, ≤0.154 μg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Unbiased valid monitoring to check for adherence to SOP-dictated time for processing to plasma or serum and/or time to storage of whole blood at 4 °C is now feasible. This novel quality assessment step could enable scientists to uncover common preanalytical errors, allowing for identification of serum and plasma samples that should be excluded from certain investigations. It should also allow control of samples before long-term storage in biobanks.
    Keywords: Proteomics and Protein Markers
    Print ISSN: 0009-9147
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-8561
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Keywords: tumor ; carcinoma ; DIAGNOSIS ; QUANTIFICATION ; EXPOSURE ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; liver ; RISK ; SITE ; GENE ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; DNA ; INFECTION ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MUTATION ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; ELECTROSPRAY ; mass spectrometry ; REGION ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; REGIONS ; RECRUITMENT ; INDIVIDUALS ; SELECTION ; QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS ; PREVALENCE ; MASSES ; STANDARD ; SUBSET ; P53 GENE ; targeted ; LEVEL ; AFLATOXIN EXPOSURE ; INTERVAL ; CODON ; analysis ; HEPATITIS-B ; GENDER ; MASS ; PARTICIPANTS ; AFLATOXIN B-1 ; CELL-FREE DNA ; CODON-249 MUTATIONS ; GAMBIA ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA PATIENTS ; WEST-AFRICA ; hepatitis B
    Abstract: A mutation in codon 249 of the TP53 gene (249(Ser)), related to aflatoxin B(1) exposure, has previously been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Using a novel internal standard plasmid, plasma concentrations of 249(Ser)-mutated DNA were quantified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in 89 hepatocellular carcinoma cases, 42 cirrhotic patients, and 131 nonliver diseased control subjects, all from highly aflatoxin-exposed regions of The Gambia. The hepatocellular carcinoma cases had higher median plasma concentrations of 249(Ser) (2,800 copies/mL; interquartile range: 500-11,000) compared with either cirrhotic (500 copies/mL; interquartile range: 500-2,600) or control subjects (500 copies/mL; interquartile range: 500-2,000; P 〈 0.05). About half (52%) of the hepatocellular carcinoma cases had 〉2,500 copies of 249(Ser)/mL plasma, corresponding to the prevalence of this mutation in liver tumors in The Gambia. In comparison, only 15% of control group and 26% of cirrhotic participants exceeded this level (P 〈 0.05). Further subset analysis revealed a statistically significant, quantitative relation between diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and levels of 249(Ser) detected at 2,501 to 10,000 copies/mL plasma (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-10.9) and at 〉10,000 copies/mL plasma (odds ratio, 62; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-820) when compared with control subjects and after adjusting for age, gender, recruitment site, hepatitis B and C serologic status, and total DNA concentration. Levels of 〉10,000 copies of 249(Ser)/mL plasma were also significantly associated with the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (odds ratio, 15; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-140) when compared with cirrhotic patients. Potential applications for the quantification of 249(Ser) DNA in plasma include estimation of long-term, cumulative aflatoxin exposure and selection of appropriate high-risk individuals for targeted intervention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16365016
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; QUALITY ; AGE ; sex ; CELL COUNT ; GENOME WIDE
    Abstract: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22808065
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