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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Orthopedic surgery ; Medicine & Public Health ; Surgical Orthopedics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 〈p〉Tips and tricks in arthroscopic surgery -- Management and consequences of the rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy -- Biceps pathology, evaluation and treatment option -- Unicompartmental knee prostheses: basic technique -- Posterior ankle arthroscopy: what are the limits?- Basic concept in PCL evaluation -- Revision ACL -- Massive rotator cuff tears and cuff arthropathy -- Multiple ligament injury management -- Patient matched cutting blocks, navigation and 3-D rotation -- Study design and research methodology -- The role of wrist arthroscopy in traumatic and post-traumatic injuries.-℗ Lateral compartment injury of the knee -- Conservative treatment of chronic shoulder pain in overhead athletes -- Algorithms and flow-charts for the treatment of cartilage pathology -- Total knee arthoplasty: BASICS gap balancing, various approaches: femur first, tibia first, rotation, varus knee, valgus knee, getting the patellofemoral joint right -- Elbow arthroscopy -- Navigation in orthopaedic sports medicine.〈/p〉
    Abstract: This book contains a collection of instructional course lectures given during the 15th ESSKA (European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy) Congress, held in Geneva during May 2012. The lectures cover a wide range of hot topics in the field, including diverse injuries and management techniques. Each lecture has a practical focus and provides an up-to-date synthesis of core knowledge on the subject in question with the aid of high-quality illustrations. Take home messages and key recommendations are highlighted. This book will be of value to practitioners and researchers alike
    ISBN: 9783642294464
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0168-9002
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal cord ; Dorsal horn interneurones ; Pain mechanisms ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electrophysiological properties of neurones in the spinal cord dorsal horn were studied in decerebrated, immobilized spinal rats. Extracellular recordings were performed at the thoraco-lumbar junction level. Each track was systematically located by extracellular injection of pontamine sky blue. According to their responses to mechanical peripheral stimuli, cells were classified in four classes: Class 1 cells: Cells activated only by nonnoxious stimuli. They were divided into — 1A: hair movement and/or touch and 1B: hair movement and/or touch and pressure or pressure only. Class 2 cells: Cells driven by both nonnoxious and noxious stimuli, divided into — 2A: hair movement and/or touch, pressure, pinch and/or pin-prick, and 2B: pressure, pinch and/or pin-prick. Class 3 cells: Cells only activated by noxious stimuli (pinch and/or pin-prick). Class 4 cells: Cells responding to joint movement or pressure on deep tissues. Peripheral transcutaneous or sural nerve stimulation clearly showed that class 1 cells were activated only by A fiber input while 68% of classes 2 and 3 cells received A and C input. Histological examination indicated that cells driven only by noxious input were located either in the deepest part or in the marginal zone (lamina I) of the dorsal horn. Nevertheless, some lamina I cells were also driven by both nonnoxious and noxious stimuli. In addition, there is a great deal of overlap between class 1 and class 2 cells. This fact was confirmed by considering the wide distribution in the dorsal horn of cells receiving A and C input. However, spinal organization of the different classes of cells consists of a preferential distribution rather than a strict lamination. This study indicates that properties of dorsal horn interneurones in the rat have a high degree of similarity with those previously described in other species (cat and monkey).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 83 (1985), S. 391-395 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study I have used a tracer complex made of wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA*HRP) coupled to colloidal gold for retrograde tracing of neuronal pathways at the light microscopic level. Visualization of the gold was achieved by silver precipitation (the gold silver intensification method) with gold particles acting as specific cores of nucleation. The presence of horseradish peroxidase in the protein conjugate allowed this method to be compared with classical histochemistry using tetramethylbenzidine as a chromogen. The gold silver intensification method proved to be reliable, specific and sensitive. It has been demonstrated to be useful with fixatives containing a high percentage of paraformaldehyde and compatible with histochemical procedures to show projections of transmitter specific pathways.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper describes a sensitive method for tracing neural connections at the electron microscopic (EM) level using a new compound produced through the coupling of colloidal gold particles to a wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase conjugate (the WGA*HRP-gold complex). Visualization of retrogradely labeled cells at the EM level was achieved either directly by gold particles scanning or after silver enhancement. By using different sizes of gold particles individually coupled to WGA*HRP and injected in different brain areas EM detection of multiple retrograde labeling was possible. Thus retrogradely labeled cells were first identified at the light microscopic level through HRP histochemistry with tetramethylbenzidine as a chromogen and then examined under the electron microscope after osmication and embedding. Gold particles were readily identified as electron dense, round dots in spherical grey vesicles. Identification of different sizes of gold particles often localized in the same vesicle established that the protein-gold complex can be used to study collateralisation of parental axons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study, we have tested the possible use of protein-gold complexes as neuronal markers for long-term tracing studies in rat. The tracer we have used consisted of colloidal gold particles coupled to wheat-germ agglutinin apohorseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-apoHRP). The neuronal labeling was studied for survival periods of up to nineteen months following injection in the central nervous system. Maximal visualization of the gold particles was achieved through gold silver intensification. The tracer could be detected throughout the entire range of periods considered. The injection site consisted of a dense black core and retrogradely labeled cells were characterized by round black granules over the cell body. The retrogradely labeled cells were cytochemically characterized by demonstrating their transmitter content. Thus protein-gold complexes may be used as long-term neuronal markers compatible with the persistance of the vital functions of the labeled cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Urinary bladder ; Pain ; Inflammation ; Spinal cord ; Immunocytochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The evoked expression of the immediate early gene (IEG)-encoded proteins c-Fos and Krox-24 was used to monitor spinal visceronociceptive processing that results from cyclophosphamide cystitis in behaving rats. Animals received a single dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. of cyclophosphamide and survived for 30 min to 5 h. Longer survival times were not considered because of ethical considerations. Cyclophosphamide-injected animals developed characteristic behavioral signs in parallel with development of bladder lesions and spinal evoked expression of IEG-encoded proteins. Histological examination of the urinary bladder was used to evaluate the degree of cystitis and as a criterion for selection of groups of animals to be quantitatively analyzed. Controls consisted of freely behaving animals including control (uninjected), sham (saline-injected) or diuretic (furosemide-injected) animals. Behavioral modifications consisted of lacrimation, piloerection, assumption of a peculiar “rounded-back” posture, which was accompanied by head immobility and various brief “crises” (tail hyperextension, abdominal retractions, licking of the lower abdomen, backward withdrawal movements). Abnormal behaviors, which first appeared (lacrimation, piloerection) at the end of postinjection hour 1, progressively increased in severity (rounded-back posture) over the following 90 min to reach a plateau at about postinjection hour 2; the rounded-back posture was maintained up to time of death. Histological modifications of bladder tissue were assessed using a 4-grade scale in a blind setting. The 1st grade consisted of control or sham animals with no bladder lesion; 2nd grade, animals with simple chorionic edema; 3rd grade, animals with chorionic edema associated with mucosal abrasion, fibrin deposit, and onset of polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration; 4th grade, animals with complete cystitis corresponding to an increase in severity and spread of all the signs of cystitis described above plus petechial hemorrhage. Simple chorionic edema was observed from 30 min to 3 h post-injection, but with a progressive increase in severity over time. Edema accompanied by epithelial abrasion was observed for animals that survived 3–4 h postinjection; complete inflammation was observed in animals that survived 4–5 h postinjection. The study of c-Fos- and Krox-24-encoded protein expression demonstrated that few lumbosacral spinal areas were specifically involved in the processing of visceral inputs in response to bladder stimulation. These areas were the parasympathetic column (SPN), the dorsal gray commissure (DGC as the caudal extent of lamina X), and superficial layers of the dorsal horn. Differential basal and evoked labeling between c-Fos and Krox-24 allowed a functional distinction between these spinal subregions: Krox-24 was an indicator of the first signs of inflammation (simple chorionic edema); c-Fos was an indicator of more pronounced impairments. DGC, which displayed a high level of basal Krox-24 expression and in which both Krox-24 and c-Fos were evoked in relation to disease evolution, probably codes inputs from both physiological (progressive bladder filling) and all types of pathological (inflammatory processes, overdistension) conditions. SPN, which, except for basal Krox-24 expression, responded like DGC and contains preganglionic motor cells, probably codes inputs involved in eliciting motor activity that results in bladder emptying as needed from natural filling and/or pathological situations. Laminae I and II, which responded like DGC and SPN with respect to Krox-24 expression, may code inputs from physiopathological changes of the bladder, though lamina I would be primarily involved in pain processing as it was the only region in which c-Fos expression increased during abrasion and complete inflammation. The cyclophosphamide-cystitis model has the following unique features compared with other visceral models: first, the stimulus is a “pure” visceral one, confined to one viscus (bladder; no somatic stimulation is induced by either introducing a stimulating device or from surgical wounds, and no anesthesia is required); second, it is the exact replica of a human disease, and its evolution can be efficently monitored through behavioral and histological observations; third, it can be used in behaving animals without departing from ethical rules.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Urinary bladder ; Inflammation ; Brainstem ; Pontomesencephalic junction ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The evoked expression of the immediate early gene encoded proteins c-Fos and Krox-24 was used to study activation of hindbrain neurons as a function of the development of Cyclophosphamide (CP) cystitis in behaving rats. CP-injected animals received a single dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. under transient volatile anesthesia and survived for 1 to 4 h in order to cover the whole postinjection period during which the disease develops. CP-injected groups included: (1) animals with minor simple chorionic edema, an early characteristic of inflammation (1 h postinjection); (2) animals with well developed simple chorionic edema (2 h postinjection); (3) animals with mild inflammation (chorionic edema accompanied by epithelial cleavage; 3 h postinjection); and (4) animals with complete inflammation (4 h postinjection). In addition to onset of chorionic edema, the earliest postinjection period also included the general aspects of the nervous reaction consecutive to the injection process (handling, transient volatile anesthesia and postanesthesia awakening, abdominal pinprick, CP blood circulating effects). Controls included both noninjected animals and saline injected animals surviving for the same times as CP injected ones. Quantitative results come from c-Fos expression. It has been shown that: (1) saline injection is a significant stimulus for only nucleus O and central gray pars alpha and nucleus medialis of the dorsal vagal complex; (2) all structures driven by CP injection (nucleus O and central gray pars alpha, locus coeruleus, Barrington's nucleus and parabrachial area mostly in its ventral and lateral subdivisions, dorsal vagal complex, ventrocaudal portion of lateral bulbar reticular formation) responded vigorously shortly after injection, but only two (dorsal vagal complex, ventrocaudal portion of lateral bulbar reticular formation) showed increased or renewed activity when cystitis completely developed, i.e., when noxious visceral inputs reached highest levels. Regarding the sequential activation of these structures in relation to postinjection time, evidence is given that: (1) a large variety of hindbrain structures are differentially involved in either the general reaction consecutive to the injection process or to various degrees of cystitis; (2) these structures extend from the brain spinal cord to the pons mesencephalon transitional junction levels; (3) the two structures most powerfully driven by visceronociceptive inputs are also the most caudal ones, being located at the brain spinal cord junction level; and (4) the dorsal vagal complex could be the main hindbrain visceral pain center, with three particular subdivisions, the nucleus medialis, nucleus commissuralis, and ventralmost part of area postrema, being involved.
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