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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsEscherichia coli ; Capsule ; Serotype ; Edema disease ; Electron microscopy ; Cell adhesion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The fine structure of the cell surface of seven enterotoxemic Escherichia coli (ETEEC) O139:K12 strains isolated from piglets with edema disease were examined electron microscopically using both the negative-staining method and the freeze-substitution fixation method. Densely packed, fine fibers were observed; they consisted of a capsule layer approximately 25 nm thick around the cell surfaces of strains 107/86, IW-2, ED-3, ED-43, and ED-61, all of which have a capacity to adhere strongly to HEp-2 cells. In contrast, no such structure was observed on the surface of strains RK-O139 or ED-1, both of which adhere only weakly to HEp-2 cells. These results suggest that the capsule structure might be associated with the ability to adhere to HEp-2 cells and, as a result, also potentially play some role in ETEEC infection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsV. cholerae O139 ; Lipopolysaccharide ; Electron microscopy ; Freeze-substitution technique ; Capsule
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The morphological and physical characteristics of the capsule of Vibrio cholerae O139 were examined. An electron microscopic study using the freeze-substitution technique showed that all of the V. cholerae strains of the O139 serogroup examined have a very thin fibrous layer on the outside of the outer membrane. In contrast, the mutants of strain O139, strain MO10T4 (which lacks capsule synthesis), and strain Bengal-2R1 (which fails to synthesize both the capsule and the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide) were all found to have lost the surface layer. In addition, the capsule layer could also not be observed on the surface of V. cholerae strain O1. To determine the biological characteristics of the capsule of strains of the O139 serogroup, we investigated the serum killing activity and bacterial phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The O139 strains were more resistant to the serum killing activity than were the V. cholerae O1 strain and the O139 mutant strains, thus suggesting that the existence of the capsule gave a serum-resistant character to the O139 strains. The surface character of the O139 strains had the same hydrophobic character as did that of the O139 mutant strains and the O1 strain. In addition, all the V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains examined, including the mutant strains, were effectively ingested by the human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The number of ingested bacteria was not significantly different among the strains, and the ingestion of the acapsular O139 mutants thus showed that the capsule does not play an antiphagocytic role. These data suggest that the capsule of V. cholerae O139 has a physiological function different from that of the ordinal hydrophilic capsule that is found in invasive bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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