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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Single unit ; Sleep-waking cycle ; Ventromedial medulla ; Serotonin-containing neurons ; Antidromic invasion test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recordings were made from 24 “PS-OFF” neurons, characterized by a slow rhythmic discharge rate during waking and slow wave sleep and a marked decrease in the firing rate during paradoxical sleep, in the ventromedial medulla oblongata of freely moving cats. These neurons were located in either the nuclei raphe magnus and pallidus or the neighboring reticular formation where serotonincontaining neurons are found in the cat. Two types of medullary PS-OFF neurons are described, and the descending projection and slow conduction velocity of some of these neurons are demonstrated.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular input ; Visual cortex ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study examines the possibility of a vestibular input to the visual cortex using chronically implanted cats subjected to horizontal sinusoïdal rotation in the dark. In areas 17 and 18 the activity of respectively 14% and 11% of units was modified by vestibular stimulation. Both non-specific and specific influences were observed. Specific influences (42% in area 17 and 33% in area 18) were similar to the types of responses recorded in the vestibular nuclei, and were encountered more frequently within the cortex subserving the peripheral visual field. Our results could provide a neurophysiological basis for some psychophysiological observations concerning visuo-vestibular interactions.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Saccade-related activity ; Retinotopic organization ; Visual cortex ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Single unit activity of 842 cells has been recorded in cat visual cortex and analyzed with respect to vestibular induced, and spontaneous saccadic eye movements performed in the dark. This study has been done in awake, chronically implanted cats, subsequently placed in “acute” conditions to achieve the precise retinotopic mapping of the cortical areas previously investigated. In areas 17 and 18, respectively, 27% and 24% of the cells tested were influenced by horizontal saccadic eye movements in the dark (E. M. cells). In the Clare-Bishop area, the proportion of E. M. cells was 12%, while only 2% of such cells were found in areas 19 and 21. The distribution of E.M. cells in areas 17 and 18 with respect to retinotopy showed that E.M. cells were more numerous in the cortical zones devoted to the representation of the area centralis (38% in area 17, 27% in area 18) than in the zones subserving the periphery of the visual field (17% and 12%, respectively). Two of the characteristics of E. M. cell activations appear dependant on the retinotopic organization. First, a larger number of E.M. cells presenting an asymmetry in their responses to horizontal saccadic eye movements in opposite directions (directional E.M. cells) were encountered in the cortical representation of the peripheral visual field. 53% of E. M. cells recorded in area 17 and 71% in area 18 were directional in the cortex corresponding to the peripheral visual field. This percentage was of 23% and 25% respectively in the cortex devoted to area centralis. Second, E.M. cells were found to have a latency from the onset of the saccade systematically larger than 100 ms (i.e, they discharged at, or after the end of the eye movement) if they were located in the cortical representation of the area centralis, while E.M. cells related to the peripheral visual field displayed a wider range of latencies (0–240 ms). Results obtained in Clare Bishop area, although limited to the representation of the peripheral visual field, were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those observed in the homologous retinotopic zones of areas 17 and 18. It is concluded that an extra-retinal input related to oculomotor activity is sent to the cat visual cortex and is organized, at least in areas 17 and 18, with respect to the retinotopic representation of the visual field. These data support the hypothesis of a functional duality between central and peripheral vision and are discussed in the context of visual-oculomotor integration.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have previously located a major neutralization site of the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the polypeptide region extending from amino acids Ile221 to Glu232. In this report, 8 peptides corresponding to the six major hydrophilic regions of the F1 subunit were selected to analyse their immunogenic and protective capacities as well as their ability to block the high neutralization activities of 4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Only 5 of the 8 peptides tested induced specific antibodies while all induced an in vitro interleukin-2 response of splenocytes from immunized mice. Peptide 3 (Ile221-Phe237) was able to elicit neutralizing antibodies, confirming our previous hypothesis concerning the location of a neutralization site. However, immunization with the latter did not induce significant reduction of virus in lungs of BALB/c mice upon challenge, probably due to an inadequate level of circulating neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, peptides 2 (Asn216-Glu232), 3 (Ile221-Phe237), and 5 (Ser275-Ile288) blocked in vitro neutralization by four different F1 specific MAbs. A hypothesis is proposed to explain these results.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In cells infected with Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) ts 1026 and superinfected with Rous Sarcoma virus (RSV) synthesis of vsrc mRNA and RSV env mRNA decreases. In these cells post-translational processing of RSV precursor proteins is impaired and small amounts of VSV antigens are detected.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fusion of MHV-3-immune splenocytes from MHV-3-resistant A/J murine strain, with NS myeloma cells produced several hybridomas. Among eight hybridoma clones, the 1E7A4H1 clone secreted kappa IgG2a apparently directed against the nucleoprotein of the MHV-3 virion. The monoclonal antibody was able to neutralize the in vitro cytopathic effect of MHV-3 on cultured L2 cells, and was detected by indirect immuno-fluorescence on MHV-3-infected cultured YAC cells. In addition, it conferred a significant protection against MHV-3-induced acute disease, if injected intraperitoneally to C57BL/6 mice before inoculation with MHV-3.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Interferon α ; Hairy-cell leukemia ; v-Ki-ras expression ; Activation by IFN
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary α-Interferon (IFN) is effective in the treatment of hairy-cell leukemia (HCL), but the treatment is sometimes over a long period. Biological changes such as the increase of tumorigenicity can occur rapidly in vivo as a result of beginning this treatment; an increase in c-Ki-ras oncogene expression has also been observed. In order to determine whether the findings observed in vitro would be duplicated in an in vivo system, we decided to analyze the Ki-ras RNA and protein levels in the lymphocytes of three HCL patients, compared with these levels in seven normal donors and one nontreated HCL patients. Ki-ras was not activated by IFN, at least not in lymphocytes. Therefore, the data suggest that the drug could be used for longterm therapy with relatively low risk to the patients.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cat eye movements were recorded during wakefulness and paradoxical sleep with the technique of the scleral search coil in a magnetic field. During waking, eye movements consisted of a succession of saccades and fixation phases. During paradoxical sleep, the pattern of eye movements displayed drifts of variable velocity and direction and short fixation phases, upon which saccades superimposed. These saccades displayed a repetitive, stereotyped, asymmetrical pattern. The maximum velocity/amplitude relationships, i.e. the main sequences, were determined for spontaneous and visually induced saccades of waking and for the following types of saccades during paradoxical sleep: (i) isolated saccades accompanied by ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, (ii) isolated saccades accompanied by eye movement potentials (EMP), and (iii) saccades in bursts accompanied by PGO waves. The slope of the main sequence relationship of any type of paradoxical sleep saccade (from 21.7°/° for isolated saccades to 35.6°/s° for saccades in bursts) was higher than that of any type of waking saccade (11.2°/s° for spontaneous saccades to 14.7°/s° for visually elicited ones). Furthermore, during paradoxical sleep, saccades in bursts were faster than isolated ones. This demonstrates that different neurophysiological mechanisms subserve the generation of waking saccades, paradoxical sleep isolated saccades and paradoxical sleep saccades in bursts, or that the oculomotor system is in a different state of excitation during these different sets of saccades. These findings throw new light on the functioning of the oculomotor system during paradoxical sleep and are discussed in terms of the functional significance of paradoxical sleep saccades and PGO waves.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Key words Parkinson’s disease ; Dopamine transporter gene ; Variable number tandem repeat ; polymorphism ; Association studies ; French population
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We studied a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene in search of an association with Parkinson’s disease in a French population. Five alleles were detected, consisting of 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 copies of the 40-base pair repeat sequence, of which the 10-copy allele was the most common. There was no significant difference between the patients and the control subjects in the distribution frequencies of the alleles or genotypes, or in ages at onset in patients between the main allelic classes.
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