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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; DELETIONS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; DUPLICATIONS ; STRUCTURAL VARIATION ; COPY NUMBER VARIANTS ; FRAGILE-X-SYNDROME ; DE-NOVO MUTATIONS ; INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ; PHENOTYPE ONTOLOGY
    Abstract: Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 x 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 x 10(-15), approximately 3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24768552
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  • 2
    Keywords: proliferation ; COMBINATION ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; GENE ; GENES ; COMPLEX ; FAMILY ; IMPACT ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; FREQUENCY ; LINKAGE ; VARIANTS ; TARGET ; COPY NUMBER ; ARRAYS ; NUMBER ; genotyping ; MUTATIONS ; REVEALS ; TARGETS ; CHILDREN ; DISORDERS ; VARIANT ; DETERMINANTS ; SCIENCE ; development ; LOCUS ; MOTILITY ; LOCI ; SPECTRUM DISORDERS ; Genetic ; RANGE ; Lead ; COPY NUMBER VARIANTS ; Copy number variation ; ANCESTRY ; GENETIC DISORDER ; HIDDEN-MARKOV MODEL ; SNP GENOTYPING DATA
    Abstract: The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours(1). Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability(2). Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable (similar to 90%)(3), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (〈1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P=0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P=3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20531469
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-12-20
    Description: To facilitate precision medicine and whole-genome annotation, we developed a machine-learning technique that scores how strongly genetic variants affect RNA splicing, whose alteration contributes to many diseases. Analysis of more than 650,000 intronic and exonic variants revealed widespread patterns of mutation-driven aberrant splicing. Intronic disease mutations that are more than 30 nucleotides from any splice site alter splicing nine times as often as common variants, and missense exonic disease mutations that have the least impact on protein function are five times as likely as others to alter splicing. We detected tens of thousands of disease-causing mutations, including those involved in cancers and spinal muscular atrophy. Examination of intronic and exonic variants found using whole-genome sequencing of individuals with autism revealed misspliced genes with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Our approach provides evidence for causal variants and should enable new discoveries in precision medicine.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362528/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362528/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xiong, Hui Y -- Alipanahi, Babak -- Lee, Leo J -- Bretschneider, Hannes -- Merico, Daniele -- Yuen, Ryan K C -- Hua, Yimin -- Gueroussov, Serge -- Najafabadi, Hamed S -- Hughes, Timothy R -- Morris, Quaid -- Barash, Yoseph -- Krainer, Adrian R -- Jojic, Nebojsa -- Scherer, Stephen W -- Blencowe, Benjamin J -- Frey, Brendan J -- P30 CA045508/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM042699/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37-GM42699A/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):1254806. doi: 10.1126/science.1254806. Epub 2014 Dec 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. ; McLaughlin Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Centre for Applied Genomics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA. ; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; eScience Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA 98052, USA. ; Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. McLaughlin Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Centre for Applied Genomics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. McLaughlin Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. Program on Genetic Networks and Program on Neural Computation & Adaptive Perception, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada. Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada. McLaughlin Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. eScience Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA 98052, USA. frey@psi.toronto.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25525159" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics ; *Artificial Intelligence ; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/*genetics ; Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/*genetics ; Computer Simulation ; DNA/genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Genetic Code ; Genetic Markers ; Genetic Variation ; Genome-Wide Association Study/*methods ; Humans ; Introns/genetics ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Annotation/*methods ; Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/*genetics ; Mutation, Missense ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; RNA Splice Sites/genetics ; RNA Splicing/*genetics ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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