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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Comorbidity ; Social phobia ; Depression ; Alcoholism ; Family studies ; Twin studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper reviews evidence from clinical, epidemiologic, and family studies regarding the association between social phobia and other syndromes. Social phobia is strongly associated with other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and affective disorders in both clinical and community samples. An average of 80% of social phobics identified in community samples meet diagnostic criteria for another lifetime condition. Social phobia is most strongly associated with other subtypes of anxiety disorders, with an average of 50% of social phobics in the community reporting a concomitant anxiety disorder including another phobic disorder, generalized anciety, or panic disorder. Approximately 20% of subjects in the community meet lifetime criteria for a major depressive disorder. The onset of social phobia generally precedes that of all other disorders, with the exception of simple phobia. Both clinical severity and treated prevalence are consistently greater among social phobics with comorbid disorders The results of family and twin studies reveal that shared etiologic factors explain a substantial proportion of the comorbidity between social phobia and depression, whereas the association between social phobia and alcoholism derives from a nonfamilial causal relationship between the two conditions. Clinical and phenomenologic implications of these findings are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The application of the methods of genetic epidemiology appears to be one of the most promising avenues to unravel the complex mechanisms through which genes may exert their influence. The approaches of genetic epidemiology are particularly important for those diseases which are characterized by moderate degrees of heritability and lack of direct correspondence between the underlying vulnerability factors and the ultimate expression of the disease, as is the case for affective disorders. The application of the methods of genetic epidemiology to children of affected parents may also elucidate environmental risk factors and early signs of the disorder. Perhaps the most important implication of the identification of genetic markers for affective disorders is the opportunity for prevention of the disorders. Early identification of youngsters who do manifest early signs of the disorders would facilitate secondary and tertiary prevention of the consequences of those conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Genetics ; Linkage ; Psychiatric disorders ; Genetic epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Linkage analysis has been successful in identifying the genetic basis of numerous Mendelian diseases. These successes were due in part to the rapid developments in molecular biology, which have yielded a plethora of informative genetic markers. Although there is strong evidence that the manifestation of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorders is controlled by genes, no evidence for linkage has been established. For psychiatric disorders, the most important limiting factor is likely to be the lack of single loci with very large effects that occur with any relevant frequency. The difficulties of linkage studies in psychiatric disorders are discussed with reference to non-psychiatric genetic diseases for which linkage to genetic markers has been successful. Recommendations for collecting information to clarify the patterns of transmission of the psychiatric disorders are described.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; Headache ; Migraine ; Tension-type headache
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examines the 1 year prevalence rates of headache syndromes in an epidemiologic cohort study of young adults ages 29–30 in Zurich, Switzerland. The 1 year prevalence rates of headache subtypes were 3.3% for migraine with aura and 21.3% of migraine without aura as defined by the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. The demographic distribution, clinical features, sequelae, and treatment patterns of subjects with specifc headache subtypes are described. The rates of migraine are compared to those of other community samples that have employed the IHS criteria for headache subtypes. Subjects with migraine reported pervasive impairment in nearly every life role including occupation, leisure, and social relationships. Despite the substantial degree of impairment in occupational and social functioning that was associated with migraine, an extremely low proportion of subjects had received professional treatment for headache. These results suggest that a concerted effort should be directed towards education regarding the classification of headache and the availability of efficacious treatment for migraine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Addiction 98 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1360-0443
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: The family unit is the primary source of transmission of basic social, cultural, genetic, and biological factors that may underlie individual differences in smoking. Existing information on the role of familial factors in tobacco use is characterized by two separate, but somewhat overlapping, lines of research: genetic epidemiological studies and risk-factor research. The present paper summarizes and evaluates studies assessing the association between adolescent smoking and parent and sibling smoking behaviors. A review of 87 studies reveals that methods are limited by a lack of standardized instruments, failure to measure important confounding and mediating factors, reliance on cross-sectional designs and the use of inconsistent definitions of tobacco-related behavior and assessment procedures. Moreover, there are no systematic family studies of the acquisition and continuation of smoking that have employed contemporary methodological standards for examining familial aggregation of tobacco behaviors among adolescents. Findings across studies show weak and inconsistent associations between parent and adolescent smoking; inconsistent findings may be attributed to methodological issues or associated factors that may complicate the relation between parent and adolescent smoking. Sibling and peer smoking show greater associations with adolescent smoking. Suggestions for future research include contemporary family studies that delineate meaningful phenotypes of tobacco use and prospective work on the later stages of tobacco use and the timing of the influence and valence of parent and family factors. Integration of the risk factor approach within the family study design may enrich both approaches to elucidate familial influences on smoking.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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