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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; ancient DNA ; Native Americans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Examination of ancient and contemporary Native American mtDNA variation via diagnostic restriction sites and the 9-pb Region V deletion suggests a single wave of migration into the New World. This is in contrast to data from Torroni et al.34 which suggested two waves of migration into the New World (the NaDene and Amerind). All four founding lineage types are present in populations in North, Central, and South America suggesting that all four lineages came over together and spead throughout the New World. Ancient Native American DNA shows that all four lineages were present before European contact in North America, and at least two were present in South America. The presence of all four lineages in the NaDene and the Amerinds argues against separate migrations founding these two groups, although admixture between the groups is still a viable explanation for the presence of all four types in the NaDene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Human evolution ; Population genetics ; Molecular anthropology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Restriction analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 3065 humans from 62 geographic samples identified 149 haplotypes and 81 polymorphic sites. These data were used to test several aspects of the evolutionary past of the human species. A dendrogram depicting the genetic relatedness of all haplotypes shows that the native African populations have the greatest diversity and, consistent with evidence from a variety of sources, suggests an African origin for our species. The data also indicate that two individuals drawn, at random from the entire sample will differ at approximately 0.4% of their mtDNA nucleotide sites, which is somewhat higher than previous estimates. Human mtDNA also exhibits more interpopulation heterogeneity (GST=0.351±0.025) than does nuclear DNA (GST=0.12). Moreover, the virtual absence of intermediate levels of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of sites is consistent with the absence of genetic recombination and places constraints on the rate of mutation. Tests of the selective neutrality of mtDNA variation, including the Ewens-Watterson and Tajima tests, indicate a departure in the direction consistent with purifying selection, but this departure is more likely due to the rapid growth of the human population and the geographic heterogeneity of the variation. The lack of a good fit to neutrality poses problems for the estimation of times of coalescence from human mtDNA data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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