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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: BHK-21/BRS ; MDCK ; non-animal-derived ; serum-free medium ; Vero ; virus-production
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The development of media free of serum and animal or human proteins is of utmost importance for increasing the safety of biologicals produced for therapy and vaccination. In order to reduce the risk of contamination, we have modified the serum free medium MDSS2, a very efficient serum free medium for the production of various biologicals including experimental vaccines using different cell lines (Merten et al., 1994), by replacing the animal derived products by plant extracts. The new serum and animal protein free medium (MDSS2N) can be efficiently used for biomass production of various cell lines. These cells grow equally well or better in this new serum-free medium than in the old formulation (MDSS2): • BHK-21/BRS cells, adapted to MDSS2N, showed an overall specific growth rate of 0.0197 h-1 (μ_max = 0.0510±0.0058 h-1), whereas those cultivated in MDSS2 grew with an average specific growth rate of 0.0179 h-1 (μ_max = 0.0305±0.0177 h-1). • Vero cells grew with an average specific growth rate of 0.0159 h-1 and 0.0153 h-1 in MDSS2 and MDSS2N, respectively. Very similar growth rates were obtained in microcarrier cultures in stirred tank reactors: the specific growth rates were 0.0161 h-1 and 0.0166 h-1 for MDSS2 and MDSS2N cultures, respectively. • For MDCK cells, when cultured on microcarriers in bioreactors, a higher average specific growth rate was observed in MDSS2N than in MDSS2; values of 0.0248 h-1 and 0.0168 h-1, respectively, were obtained. The capacity of MDSS2N to support the production of different viruses was equally evaluated and it could be established that for certain viruses there are no or insignificant differences between MDSS2N and MDSS2 (influenza and polio virus), whereas, the production of rabies virus is somewhat reduced in MDSS2N when compared to MDSS2. The use of MDSS2N for cell culture and the production of various viruses is discussed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cytotechnology 34 (2000), S. 181-183 
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: serum-free medium ; Vero cells ; poliovirus Sabin 1 ; perfusion culture ; optimisation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The serum-free medium MDSS2 (Merten et al., 1994), was used for cultivating Vero cells as well as for producing poliovirus (Sabin type 1) in static and in perfused micro-carrier cultures. At slightly different growth rates of 0.0120/h and 0.0106/h, respectively, static cultures in serum-containing (SCM) and serum-free (SFM) medium produced titers of 106.75 and 106.67 TCID50 per 50 µl; signifying a specific productivity of 0.89 and 1.07 TCID50/c. Serum-free bioreactor cultures of Vero cells on DEAE-dextran microcarriers at 6.25 g/l produced cell densities of about 1.5×106c/ml. After infection with virus (multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.1–0.3) titers of about 6.3×108 TCID50/ml were obtained, signifying an average specific productivity of 7.1 TCID50/c.h. Although these values were 4 and 2 fold, respectively, higher than in classical resum-based production processes (Montagnon et al. Dev. biol. Stand. 1981, 47, 55), a reference culture, for which cell growth was done in SCM and only virus production was done in SFM, produced 2×109 TCID/ml with an average specific virus production rate of 18.9 TCID50/c.h. The differences between the fully serum-free and our reference process were mainly due to physiological differences of cells grown in SCM and SFM and also due to strongly modified consumption kinetics after virus infection leading to limitations of one or several essential medium compounds, like glucose and amino acids. Avoiding these limitations by increasing the residual concentration of glucose, glutamine, histidine, and SH-amino acids, led to specific virus production rates (of about 17.9 TCID59/c.h.) comparable to those found in the reference virus production process. The optimisation of the production of the poliovirus (Sabin 1) will be described with respect to the modification of the medium composition.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: monoclonal antibodies ; cytoplasmic IgG ; pulse experiments ; mass balances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Pulse chase experiments of two mouse hybridoma lines were conducted in order to elucidate the kinetics of monoclonal antibody (mAb) production and secretion during different stages of batch cultures. The results indicate that a stock of cytoplasmic IgG exists in hybridoma cells and that the concentration of this stored IgG depends on the cell line used and the stage of the culture. This stored IgG can be released by dying cells, and a certain quantity of the secreted IgG is derived from this source. However, only between 0.3 and 9.3% of the released IgG of U0208 (average: 2.08%) and between 2.08 and 25.8% of the IgG, released from I.13.17 (average: 6.95%), were of storage origin, calculated on culture viability and intracellular IgG-stock. Comparing the accumulation of radio-labelled IgG (IgG*) in the supernatant with the reduction of cytoplasmic IgG* during the chase experiments, the percentages range between 14 and 50%, somewhat higher values probably caused by changes in the culture conditions. These changes led to a release of IgG during the chase experiments, which accounts for about 20–25% of the totally secreted IgG. It could be established that during the logarithmic growth phase of batch cultures a certain percentage of synthesized IgG was not released but stored within the cells: for U0208: 0.3–4.5%, for I.13.17: 1–7.6%. During the stationary and death phase, this percentage ranged between 1.5 and 20% for U0208 and between 0.5 and 8.1% for I.13.17. Finally, the chase experiments also revealed that the time of synthesis, assembly, and secretion of mAbs does not vary much during the different phases of batch cultures, and is within the range of 1.5 and 3 hrs.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cytotechnology 5 (1991), S. 69-82 
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: monoclonal antibodies ; bioreactors ; low density cultures ; high density cultures ; batch systems ; perfusion systems ; hybridomas ; serum-free media
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Hybridomas lend themselves particularly well to large scale cultivation techniques since they grow as single cells in suspension without requiring attachment to a substrate. Furthermore, many cell strains have been adapted to grow in serum-free (SF) media to a similar cell density and antibody production as in serum containing media. This review will concern itself mainly with the cultivation of hybridomas in SF-media in bioreactors of various types with the ultimate goal of producing large quantities of monoclonal antibodies (mAb).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: BHK ; BSR ; human recombinant IL-2 ; rabies virus ; recombinant BHK ; serum-free medium ; surface-attached growth ; suspension culture ; Vero
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The presence of serum in cell culture raises safety problems for the production of biologicals, thus a new serum-free medium (MDSS2) was developed. The evaluation of this medium for the growth of different cell lines (BHK-21 C13, BSR and Vero) has shown that cells grew in this medium similarly to standard serum-containing medium, independently of the culture system used: in static (as monolayer) as well as in agitated systems (in suspension in spinner and perfusion reactors). BHK-21 and BSR cells grew as aggregate cultures and could proliferate in both static and agitated culture systems. Vero cells stayed attached to a substrate and proliferated equally in static and in agitated microcarrier-culture systems. The cell densities obtained with BHK-21 cells depended only on the culture system used. They ranged from 2–3×106 to 6–12×106 cells per ml for static batch and perfusion reactor cultures respectively. The cell concentration was 3 to 6 times higher than in classical cultures performed in serum-containing medium. The cell densities obtained with Vero cells were indistinguishable from those obtained in serum-containing medium, whatever the cell culture system used. These cell lines have been used for the production of rabies virus. With respect to BHK-21 and BSR, similar production rates of rabies glycoprotein have been found as in the standard roller bottle process. The production of rabies virus and of viral glycoprotein by Vero cells cultivated in serum-free medium was augmented 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared to serum-containing medium. A recombinant BHK-21 cell line, producing human IL-2, can also proliferate in MDSS2, after addition of insulin. The specific IL-2 production rate was augmented 3–4 fold in comparison to serum-containing medium. For the cells tested, the MDSS2 serum-free medium is a good growth and production medium. Its use for cultivating other cell lines and/or for the production of other biologicals is discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cytotechnology 7 (1991), S. 121-130 
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: cell culture ; cellulose sulphate ; encapsulation ; monoclonal antibodies ; poly-dimethyl-diallyl-ammoniumchloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A new encapsulation method was developed for the cultivation of mammalian cells. The capsules were produced using a solution of sodium cellulose sulphate (CS)(1.5%) and poly-dimethyl-diallyl-ammoniumchloride (PDMDAAC). When CS droplets fell into the precipitation bath consisting of a 2% solution of PDMDAAC, immediately a membrane at the interphase was built up. The influences of varying encapsulation process parameters on capsule characteristics, cell growth, and monoclonal antibody production were tested. This new method showed advantages when compared to other methods mainly due to time simplicity of the whole process.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cytotechnology 34 (2000), S. 175-179 
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: High Five cells ; improvement ; perfusion culture ; ultrasonic retention
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The use of the ultrasonic separation deviceis a very important step in the direction forimproving animal cell bioreactor cultures. However,the normal construction of the ultrasonic separationdevice ADI 1015 has an inherent disadvantage inpumping the cell suspension continuously through thedevice by using a peristaltic pump. The cells aretaken out of the reactor and are transported to theside inlet located below the separation chamber of thedevice. This cycling leads to cell death and aconsiderable reduction of the viable cell density. Themodification of the configuration of the device (nocirculation of the cell suspension through theretention device; during approximately 9 minutescell-free supernatant is extracted; every 9 minute forabout one minute, the volume which is equivalent tothe interior volume of the chamber and the tubingconnecting the device to the reactor, is flushed backin order to return the retained cells back to thereactor) allows cell densities from 106 to2.7 × 106 c/ml with a viability of at least90% (tested for the shear sensitive insect cell lineHigh Five), whereas the maximal cell densitiesobtained were 0.76 × 106 c/ml for the periodof continuous culture and 105 c/ml at the end ofthe use of the device in the classical mode.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 39 (1992), S. 596-606 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Hybridoma ; IgG mRNAs ; cell-associated antibody ; cellular metabolic activity ; specific antibody production rate ; semicontinuous culture ; dilution rate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Hybridoma I.13.17 was grown in semicontinuous culture in an attempt to investigate the steady-state concentrations of key components of monoclonal antibody (MAb) synthesis (e.g., intracellular MAb, IgG messenger RNAs) at different dilution rates between 0.008 and 0.055 h-1. There was a general trend of increasing steady-state levels of total cytoplasmic RNA, total cell-associated MAb or cytoplasmic MAb, DNA synthesis rate, cellular metabolic activity, heavy (H-) and light (L-) chain IgG mRNAs with the increase in dilution rates. Increase in the half-lives of H- and L-chain mRNAs with increase in dilution rates may be sufficient to account for their increasing levels found under the same conditions. The specific growth rate was profoundly affected by the dilution rate, particularly near the lower end of the dilution rate range. Linear relationships were observed between the steady-state amounts of total cell-associated MAb and the relative levels of H- and L-chain mRNAs. Material balances on intracellular MAb demonstrated an increasing percentage of antibody not released into the growth medium (e.g., stored within the cell or anchored to the cell membrane) with increasing dilution rate. The MAb production rate per cell decreased significantly with the increase in dilution rates. No correlation was found between the relative levels of H- or L-chain mRNAs and the specific MAb production rate. Possible implications of rate-limiting steps in MAb synthesis and secretion are discussed.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: hybridoma ; subclone ; continuous culture ; batch culture ; igG-mRNA ; biosynthetic activities ; antibody production ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: During long-term continuous culture of the hybridoma cell line 11317, a better-producing subclone (I1317-SF11), giving improved productivity, has been selected. The comparison of the original cell line (I1317-DC) with this subclone revealed that although the growth patterns of both clones were similar, both in continuous and in batch cultures, considerable differences could be seen between the clones with respect to monoclonal antibody (MAB) accumulation, MAB production rate, the levels of mRNA coding for heavy and light chains of IgG, and some metabolic activities. In continuous culture as well as in batch culture, I1317-SF11 showed increased levels of mRNA coding for kappa and gamma chains compared with I1317-DC and/or a modified ratio of the mRNA species when compared to that in I1317-DC. Using pulse experiments, it could be established that the biosynthesis of both chains was augmented in I1317-SF11. Although the kappa and gamma mRNA levels were modified or inversed for I1317-SF11, the cells always synthesized more kappa than gamma chains. The overall increase in the synthetic activity of I1317-SF11 is suggested as one reason for the considerable increase of IgG productivity and product accumulation in continuous culture as well as in repeated batch cultures. Tests concerning metabolic activity revealed that I1317-SF11 had a predominantly glycolytic metabolism independent of growth requirements, whereas for I1317-DC the metabolism became increasingly glycolytic with increased growth. The antibody yield coefficient of I1317-SF11 on glutamine was significantly higher than that of I1317-DC for the continuous culture, whereas the antibody coefficients on glucose were almost similar for both clones under the different culture conditions used. Both antibody coefficients were considerablly influenced by the specific growth rate.All these facts together lead to the conclusion that subclone I1317-SF11 uses more of the energy available, or it was the energy and/or precursors available for the synthesis and production of MAB more efficiently than the thesis and production of MAB more efficiently than the original cell line. Although the levels of mRNA coding for heavy and light chains of IgG were modified, it could be confirmed that the overall regulation of MAB-synthesis and -production occurs post-translationally and that at higher growth rates, more biosynthetic activity is diverted to biomass production. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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