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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Maize ; RFLPs ; Genetic diversity ; Heterotic groups
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate genetic diversity for RFLPs in a set of important maize inbreds commonly used in Italian breeding programs, (2) to compare genetic similarities between unrelated lines from the same and different heterotic groups, and (3) to examine the potential of RFLPs for assigning maize inbreds to heterotic groups. Forty inbreds were analyzed for RFLPs with two restriction enzymes (EcoRI and HindIII) and 82 DNA clones uniformly distributed over the maize genome. Seventy clone-enzyme combinations gave single-banded RFLP patterns, and 79 gave multiple-banded RFLP patterns. The average number of RFLP patterns detected per clone-enzyme combination across all inbreds was 5.8. RFLP data revealed a wide range of genetic diversity within the two heterotic groups assayed, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) and Lancaster Sure Crop (LSC). Genetic similarity (GS) between lines was estimated from binary RFLP data according to the method of Nei and Li (1979). The mean GS for line combinations of type BSSS × LSC (0.498) was substantially smaller than for unrelated line combinations or type BSSS × BSSS (0.584) but almost as great as for un-related line combinations of type LSC × LSC (0.506). Principal coordinate and cluster analyses based on GS values resulted in the separate groupings of lines, which is consistent with known pedigree information. A comparison between both methods for multivariate analyses of RFLP data is presented.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; Spelt ; RFLP ; Marker Genetic diversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fifty-two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), nine spring wheat, and 20 spelt (Triticum spelta L.) lines representing part of the European breeding germplasm, were assayed for RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) with 56 wheat DNA clones and two barley cDNA clones. Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the level of variation for RFLPs in the wheat and spelt breeding lines, (2) characterize the genetic diversity within the European winter wheat germplasm, and (3) evaluate the usefulness of RFLP markers for pedigree analysis and the grouping of wheat and spelt lines of various origins. Seventy-three of the 166 RFLP loci detected with 58 probes and one restriction enzyme were polymorphic for the 81 lines. The percentage of polymorphic loci was greatest for the B genome (58%) and smallest for the D genome (21%). Among the 81 lines, 271 different RFLP bands were detected. RFLP band frequencies of the winter wheat lines differed considerably (≥0.5) from those of the spring wheat lines at five loci, and from those of the spelt lines at 17 loci. Eight cultivars that had a major impact as progenitors on the development of improved winter wheat cultivars accounted for 93% of the observed RFLP bands in winter wheat. Genetic distance (GD) estimates between two lines ranged between 0.01 and 0.21. Mean GD estimates within winter wheat (0.083), within spring wheat (0.108) and within spelt (0.096) were smaller than between spring and winter wheat (0.114), and greatest between winter wheat and spelt (0.132) and spring wheat and spelt (0.148). Principal coordinate analysis performed on GD estimates revealed a clear separation of wheat and spelt germplasm. Novel spelt lines with various proportions of wheat germplasm were positioned between wheat and traditional spelt lines. The spring wheat lines formed a distinct group at the periphery of the distribution of the winter wheat lines. Subgroupings of the winter wheat lines according to the cluster analysis were in good agreement with their origin, and lines with common ancestors were grouped together.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Zea mays L ; RFLPs ; Genetic diversity ; Heterotic groups
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Thirty inbred lines representing a wide range of early-maturing European elite germ plasm of maize (Zea mays L.) were assayed for RFLPs using 203 clone-enzyme combinations (106 DNA clones with restriction enzymes EcoR1 and HindIII). The genetic materials comprised 14 flint, 12 dent, and 4 lines of miscellaneous origin. Objectives were to (1) characterize the genetic diversity for RFLPs in these materials, (2) compare the level of genetic diversity found within and between the flint and the dent heterotic groups, and (3) examine the usefulness of RFLPs for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups. All but two DNA clones yielded polymorphism with at least one restriction enzyme. A total of 82 and 121 clone-enzyme combinations gave single-banded and multiple-banded RFLP patterns, respectively, with an average of 3.9 and 7.7 RFLP patterns per clone-enzyme combination across all 30 inbreds, respectively. Genetic similarity (GS) between lines, estimated from RFLP data as Dice's similarity coefficient, showed considerable variation (0.32 to 0.58) among unrelated inbreds. The mean GS for line combinations of type flint x dent (0.41) was significantly smaller than for unrelated flint lines (0.46) and dent lines (0.46), but there was considerable variation in GS estimates of individual line combinations within each group. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses based on GS values resulted in separate groupings of flint and dent lines in accordance with phylogenetic information. Positioning of lines of miscellaneous origin was generally consistent with expectations based on known breeding behavior and pedigrees. Results from this study corroborated that RFLP data can be used for assigning inbreds to heterotic groups and revealing pedigree relationships among inbreds.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Triticum aestivum ; QTL ; Leaf rust ; Durable resistance ; Leaf-tip necrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Quantitative resistance that delays the epidemic development of leaf rust in wheat is an important source for durable resistance breeding. The Swiss winter wheat variety ’Forno’ shows a high level of quantitative resistance against leaf rust. This resistance has been effective for more than 10 years and can therefore be considered to be durable. In order to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for durable leaf rust resistance we analysed 204 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between the winter wheat ’Forno’ and the winter spelt ’Oberkulmer’ for their level of leaf rust resistance (LR) and leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in four different environments. Both traits showed a continuous distribution and were significantly correlated (r=−0.5). Across environments we detected 8 QTL for leaf rust resistance (6 inherited from ’Forno’) and 10 QTL for the quantitative expression of LTN (6 inherited from ’Forno’). Of the 6 QTL responsible for the durable leaf rust resistance of ’Forno’, 1 major QTL coincided with a thaumatin locus on 7BL explaining 35% of the phenotypic variance. Four QTL for LR coincided with QTL for LTN. At these loci the alleles of ’Forno’ increased the level of resistance as well as the extent of LTN, indicating pleiotropy.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Allozymes ; RFLPs ; Genetic diversity ; Rare alleles ; Genetic distances ; Principal component analysis ; Zea mays L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Data for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of 144 clone-enzyme combinations and for 22 allozyme loci from 21 U.S. Corn Belt maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds were analyzed. The genetic materials included 14 progenitors of the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) maize population, both parents of one missing BSSS progenitor, four elite inbreds derived from BSSS, and inbred Mo17. Objectives were to characterize the genetic variation among these 21 inbreds for both allozymes and RFLPs, to compare the results from both types of molecular markers, and to estimate the proportion of unique alleles in the BSSS progenitors. Genetic diversity among the 21 inbreds was substantially greater for RFLPs than for allozymes, but the percentages of unique RFLP variants (27%) and unique allozyme alleles (25%) in the BSSS progenitors were similar. Genetic distances between inbreds, estimated as Rogers' distance (RD), were, on average, twice as large for RFLP (0.51) as for allozyme data (0.24). RDs obtained from allozyme and RFLP data for individual line combinations were only poorly correlated (r = 0.23); possible reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Principal component analysis of RFLP data, in contrast to allozyme data, resulted in separate groupings of the ten BSSS progenitors derived from the ‘Reid Yellow Dent’ population, the four BSSS elite lines, and Mo17. The remaining six BSSS progenitors were genetically rather diverse and contributed a large number of rare alleles to BSSS. The results of this study corroborate the fact that RFLPs are superior to allozymes for characterizing the genetic diversity of maize breeding materials, because of (1) the almost unlimited number of markers available and (2) the greater amount of polymorphisms found. In particular, RFLPs allow related lines and inbreds with common genetic background to be identified, but a large number of probe-enzyme combinations is needed to estimate genetic distances with the precision required.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Leaf rust ; RFLP ; RAPD ; Wheat ; Agropyron elongatum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr24 derived from Agropyron elongatum (3DL/3Ag translocation). Two near isogenic lines (NILs), ‘Arina’ and Lr24/7 * “Arina”, were screened for polymorphism at the DNA level with 115 RFLP probes. Twenty-one of these probes map to the homoeologous group 3. In addition, 360 RAPD primers were tested on the NILs. Six RFLP probes showed polymorphism between the NILs, and 11 RAPD primers detected one additional band in the resistant NIL. The genetic linkage of the polymorphic markers with Lr24 was tested on a segregating F2 population (150 plants) derived from a cross between the leaf rust resistant Lr24/7 * “Arina” and the susceptible spelt (Triticum spelta) variety ‘Oberkulmer’. All 6 RFLP markers were completely linked to Lr24: one was inherited as a codominant marker (PSR1205), one was in coupling phase (PSR1203) and 4 were in repulsion phase (PSR388, PSR904, PSR931, PSR1067) with Lr24. The localization of these probes on chromosome 3D was confirmed by nulli-tetrasomic analysis. Distorted genotypic segregation was found for the Codominant RFLP marker PSR1205. This distortion can be explained by the occurrence of hemizygous plants. One of the 11 RAPD markers (OPJ-09) also showed complete linkage to theLr24 resistance gene. The polymorphic RAPD fragment was cloned and sequenced. Specific primers were synthesized, and they produced an amplification product only in the resistant plants. This specific marker allows a reliable and rapid screening of a large number of genotypes in practical breeding. Analysis of 6 additional lines containing Lr24 revealed that 3 lines have a smaller chromosomal segment of A. elongatum than lines derived from ‘Agent’, a commonly used gene donor for the Lr24 resistance gene.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key wordsTriticum aestivum ; Triticum spelta ; RFLP ; Genetic map ; QTL
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We constructed a genetic map of a cross between the Swiss winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Forno and the Swiss winter spelt (Triticum spelta L.) variety Oberkulmer. For the linkage analysis,176 polymorphic RFLP probes and nine microsatellites were tested on 204 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Forno×Oberkulmer revealing 242 segregating marker loci. Thirty five percent of these loci showed significant (P〉0.05) deviation from a 1 : 1 segregation, and the percentage of Forno alleles ranged from 21% to 83% for individual marker loci. Linkage analysis was performed with the program MAPMAKER using the Haldane mapping function. Using a LOD threshold of 10, we obtained 37 linkage groups. After finding the best order of marker loci within linkage groups by multi-point analysis we assembled the linkage groups into 23 larger units by lowering the LOD threshold. All except one of the 23 new linkage groups could be assigned to physical chromosomes or chromosome arms according to hybridisation patterns of nulli-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring and published wheat maps. This resulted in a genetic map comprising 230 marker loci and spanning 2469 cM. Since the analysed population is segregating for a wide range of agronomically important traits, this genetic map is an ideal basis for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Erysiphe graminis ; Powdery mildew resistance ; QTL ; Triticum aestivum ; Triticum spelta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Powdery mildew is one of the major diseases of wheat in regions with a maritime or semi-continental climate and can strongly affect grain yield. The attempt to control powdery mildew with major resistance genes (Pm genes) has not provided a durable resistance. Breeding for quantitative resistance to powdery mildew is more promising, but is difficult to select on a phenotypic basis. In this study, we mapped and characterised quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for adult-plant powdery mildew resistance in a segregating population of 226 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of the Swiss wheat variety Forno with the Swiss spelt variety Oberkulmer. Forno possibly contains the Pm5 gene and showed good adult-plant resistance in the field. Oberkulmer does not have any known Pm gene and showed a moderate susceptible reaction. Powdery mildew resistance was assessed in field trials at two locations in 1995 and at three locations in 1996. The high heritability (h2=0.97) for powdery mildew resistance suggests that the environmental influence did not affect the resistance phenotype to a great extent. QTL analysis was based on a genetic map containing 182 loci with 23 linkage groups (2469 cM). With the method of composite interval mapping 18 QTLs for powdery mildew resistance were detected, explaining 77% of the phenotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Two QTLs with major effects were consistent over all five environments. One of them corresponds to the Pm5 locus derived from Forno on chromosome 7B. The other QTL on 5A, was derived from the spelt variety Oberkulmer and did not correspond to any known Pm gene. In addition, five QTLs were consistent over three environments, and six QTLs over two environments. The QTL at the Pm5 locus showed a large effect, although virulent races for Pm5 were present in the mixture of isolates. Molecular markers linked with QTLs for adult-plant resistance offer the possibility of simultaneous marker-assisted selection for major and minor genes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Lodging ; Morphological traits ; QTL ; Triticum aestivum ; Triticum spelta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Lodging can strongly affect both the grain yield and the quality of wheat. Lodging represents a quantitative trait and is difficult to assess on a phenotypic basis. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) could therefore become an important tool in breeding for lodging resistance. In this study, we mapped and characterised quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lodging resistance, as well as morphological traits correlated with lodging, in a segregating population of 226 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of the lodging-resistant wheat variety Forno with the susceptible spelt variety Oberkulmer. Lodging, plant height, leaf width, leaf-growth habit, culm stiffness, culm swinging, culm thickness, days to ear emergence and days to flowering were assessed in field trials at two locations in 1996 and at one location in 1997. Additionally, at one location weight and length parameters were also assessed. Plant height and culm stiffness explained 77% of the phenotypic variance of lodging in a multiple regression model over all three environments. QTL analysis of lodging and morphological parameters was based on a genetic map containing 230 loci with 23 linkage groups (2469 cM). With the method of composite interval mapping nine QTLs for lodging resistance were detected, explaining 63% of the phenotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Seven of these QTLs coincided with QTLs for morphological traits, reflecting the correlations between these traits and lodging. In our population the most efficient way to improve lodging resistance would be by a combination of indirect selection on plant height and culm stiffness together with MAS on the two QTLs for lodging resistance which did not coincide with QTLs for morphological traits.
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