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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Immiscible blends ; Flow-induced morphology ; Blend rheology ; Recoil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Immiscible polymer blends are known to display an unusual elastic recovery after stress release. Recoil after steady-state shearing is well understood and obeys specific scaling relations. Releasing the stress before the steady-state morphology has been reached results in a more complex elastic recovery, including very large final values. This behaviour is investigated systematically. Model blends are used, consisting of nearly inelastic components; hence the measured recoil can be attributed totally to contributions from the interface. The instantaneous structure at the onset of the recoil can vary greatly in transient experiments, ranging from slightly deformed droplets to highly elongated filaments. The effects of this initial structure on the ultimate recoil and time scale of the recovery are studied. The morphological changes during recovery are considered as well. It is demonstrated that they can be computed from the normal stresses during stress relaxation with comparable initial morphologies. This indicates that the same morphological changes occur during stress relaxation and constrained recoil. A scaling relation for the recoil curves has been derived from the Doi-Ohta theory, which is confirmed by the experiments.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Immiscible blends ; stress relaxation ; Rayleigh instabilities ; blend morphology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Relaxation has been investigated in immiscible blends that consist of slightly viscoelastic components. Both the shear and normal stresses have been measured after cessation of steady shear flow as well as after transient shear histories. The latter can generate a fibrillar structure which can relax by either retraction or break-up via end-pinching or Rayleigh instabilities. Each of these three relaxation mechanisms is reflected in the shape of the stress curves, from which also the corresponding structural time scales can be deduced. The experimental results have been used to evaluate the Doi-Ohta and Lee-Park models for immiscible blends. The scaling relations by Doi-Ohta are confirmed by the experimental results, but none of the existing models can correctly predict the complex relaxation behaviour observed for a highly deformed droplet phase. In the present study an alternative approach has been proposed. The stress relaxation due to fibril break-up via Rayleigh instabilities has been predicted successfully by combining physical models for the structural changes with the basic approach of the Doi-Ohta model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Polymeric liquid crystals ; anisotropy ; fillers ; string phases ; negative normal stresses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of fillers on the flow curves of polymeric liquid crystals is investigated. Suspensions of polystyrene particles in liquid crystalline solutions of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in water are used. By reducing the HPC concentration an isotropic solution can be prepared. It serves as a reference to isolate the effect of the isotropic/anisotropic structure of the suspending medium on the rheological behaviour. Suspensions in the isotropic solution behave as expected for filled viscoelastic matrices in general. In the anisotropic medium the shear rate rather than the shear stress seems to govern the changes in the relative viscosity. This behaviour is clearly different from isotropic viscoelastic media. The most dramatic effect however is that even small amounts of particles eliminate or drastically shift the region of negative normal stress differences. As far as the structure is concerned, microscopic observations show that particles align in anisotropic as well as in isotropic media. At rest or at relatively low shear stresses the liquid crystalline structure is, in the present case, hardly affected by the presence of the particles. If anything, it becomes more homogeneous.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Keywords: Key words Liquid crystalline polymers ; Superposition rheometry ; Flow-induced structures ; Anisotropic viscoelasticity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  Mechanical spectroscopy is used to probe the structure of lyotropic liquid crystalline polymers during flow and after the cessation of flow. The oscillatory flow is either parallel or perpendicular to the steady-state flow. The resulting moduli provide information about the time- and shear-dependent microstructure, including anisotropy. Two different concentrations of poly(benzylglutamate) (PBG) in m-cresol and a concentrated hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) solution, also in m-cresol, are investigated. In all cases, the orthogonal superposition moduli evolve differently from the parallel ones. The former are less sensitive to the flow-induced changes in structure than the latter ones. Together with the lack of sensitivity of the superposition moduli to texture refinement during flow, this suggests a strong relation between director orientation and superposition moduli. After the cessation of flow the parallel moduli decrease for the PBG solutions, whereas the opposite is observed in the HPC solutions. A comparison with the orthogonal moduli provides a direct measure of anisotropy. At rest, the PBG solutions tend toward a higher degree of anisotropy while the HPC solutions become more isotropic. In the latter systems, all moduli are much larger, reflecting a larger contribution from the texture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 28 (1982), S. 900-907 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: During their industrial processing, polymer liquids are usually subjected to complex flow histories. In principle, these can be taken into account in the constitutive equations. In reality, difficulties arise for complex flows. This fact can be illustrated by the spinning process. Here, experiments are presented in which the upstream section of a spinning device has been changed systematically. A constitutive model and a calculation procedure are suggested that permit an analysis of the upstream effects in the spinning flow. The results indicate that this analysis predicts well the spinning dynamics in the present experiments, using shear flow characteristics for the liquids. It is also concluded that the spinning flow can be altered by upstream changes. The changes in structure seem to be the most pronounced ones.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The non-Newtonian viscosities of polymerically stabilized colloidal suspensions are usually predicted and correlated on the basis of data and scaling principles for Brownian hard spheres. Here, the specific effect of the stabilizer layer is investigated using suspensions of monodisperse PMMA particles with a chemically attached stabilizer layer. The ratio between particle radius and stabilizer layer thickness is changed between 5 and 61. At high values of this ratio the data show Brownian hard sphere behavior. At lower values deviations appear. As a first approximation, the “softness” of the particles can be characterized through the concentration at maximum packing. A more detailed comparison with hard sphere data provides a measure for softness that changes with concentration and shear rate. A theoretical estimate of the concentration effect is in line with the experiments. The critical shear stress (or Peclet number) is not a constant but goes through a maximum when the concentration is increased.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 23 (1977), S. 224-232 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An efficient and simple numerical technique is presented for analyzing nonisothermal nip flow of viscous liquids. It has been applied on calendering to calculate the design parameters as well as the interaction effects between roller characteristics, operation conditions, and material properties. Viscous heating is shown to drastically change the mechanics near the nip exit if the rollers rotate at different speeds. Consequences for scaling-up and model experiments are indicated.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial and engineering chemistry 20 (1981), S. 515-519 
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Macromolecules 22 (1989), S. 960-965 
    ISSN: 1520-5835
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Langmuir 10 (1994), S. 2206-2212 
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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