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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Capsule-deficient mutants of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain B 1940 were constructed by allelic replacement using the plasmids pMF120 and pMF121, which contain the flanking regions of the gene locus for the biosynthesis pathway of the group B meningococcal capsular polysaccharide. Southern blot analysis of chromosomal DNA of the capsule-deficient meningococcal strains confirmed the generation of large deletions in the chromosomal cps gene complex. The same strategy proved useful in constructing meningococcal strains with capsular types A, C., W 135, Y and Z.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words 3-Dehydroquinate synthetase ; Aromatic amino acid synthesis ; aroK ; yafJ ; Cell invasion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene coding for the 3-dehydroquinate synthetase (aroB) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli aroB mutant. The aroB gene isolated from a gonococcal plasmid library encodes a 359 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 38.6 kDa. Alignment of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic aroB gene products reveals an overall identity ranging from 33 to 55%. An open reading frame coding for an aroK homologue is located immediately upstream of aroB. Downstream of aroB a region of inverted repeats and a gene showing high homology to yafJ of E. coli has been identified. Disruption of aroB generates a gonococcal mutant that is unable to grow in the absence of aromatic compounds. Complementation of the mutant with the intact aroB gene intrans indicates that the gene is responsible for the auxotrophic phenotype. In infection assays with AroB-deficient gonococcal strains, binding, entry and short-term survival in epithelial cells is not affected. The aroB gene might be useful as a selectable marker and target for attenuation of a gonococcal live vaccine strain or as a biosafe laboratory strain.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Gonococcus ; Folic acid ; Dihydrofolate synthetase ; Folylpolyglutamate synthetase ; One-carbon metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene coding for folylpoly-(γ)-glutamate synthetase (FPGS)-dihydrofolate synthetase (DHFS) ofNeisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) has been cloned by functional complementation of anEscherichia coli folC mutant (SF4). The sequence encodes a 224-residue protein of 46.4 kDa. It shows 46% identity to theE. coli FPGS-DHFS and 29% identity to the PFGS ofLactobacillus casei. Sequence comparisons between the three genes reveal regions of high homology, including ATP binding sites required for bifunctionality, all of which may be important for FPGS activity. In contrast toL. casei FPGS, theE. coli andNgo enzymes share some additional regions which may be essential for DHFS activity. The products ofNgo folC and flanking genes were monitored by T7 promoter expression. Interestingly, deletion of the upstreamfolI gene, which encodes a 16.5 kDa protein, abolishes the capacity offolC to complementE. coli SF4 to the wild-type phenotype. The ability to complement can be restored byfolI providedin trans. UnlikefolC mutants, gonococcalfolI mutants are viable and display no apparent phenotype. Thus, in contrast toE. coli, Ngo folC is expressed at a sufficiently high level from its own promoter, in the absence of FolI. This study provides the first insights into the genetic complexity of one-carbon metabolism inNgo.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Gonococci ; aniA ; Pan1 ; Nitrite reductase ; Anaerobiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The aniA gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein which is strongly induced when gonococci are grown anaerobically in vitro in the presence of nitrite. Database searches with the amino acid sequence derived from the aniA structural gene revealed significant homologies to copper-containing nitrite reductases from several denitrifying bacteria. We constructed an insertional mutation in the aniA locus of strain MS11 by allelic replacement, to determine whether this locus was necessary for growth in oxygen-depleted environments, and to demonstrate that AniA was indeed a nitrite reductase. The mutant was severely impaired in its ability to grow microaerophilically in the presence of nitrite, and we observed a loss in viability over several hours of incubation. No measurable nitrite reductase activity was detected in the aniA mutant strain, and activity in the strain with a wild-type locus was inducible. Finally, we report investigations to determine whether AniA protein is involved in gonococcal pathogenesis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Gonococci ; Pilli ; Transcription ; Anaerobiosis ; Growth phase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The type-4 pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a dominant surface antigen which facilitates adhesion to host target cells, an essential event in gonococcal infection. pilC2 encodes a 110-kDa protein involved in pilus assembly, pilus-mediated adherence to human epithelial cells in culture and natural competence for DNA transformation. Luciferase activity directed from a chromosomal pilC2::luxAB transcriptional fusion was reduced approximately 4-fold when cells were grown anaerobically. We observed a concomitant reduction in gonococcal piliation by electron microscopy and a reduction in the ability to adhere to ME-180 human epithelial cells when bacteria were grown in the absence of oxygen. Furthermore, we present evidence for growth-phase regulation of the gonococcal pilC2 gene in Escherichia coli, and show that all sequences necessary for growth-phase regulation are contained on a 121-bp pilC2 fragment. Expression from the minimal pilC2 fragment fused to lacZ in single-copy in E. coli was induced 2-fold when cells entered stationary phase. Surprisingly, induction does not require rpoS, the gene, which encodes the starvation-induced sigma factor RpoS. In summary, we have demonstrated that pilC2 is both positively and negatively regulated at the level of transcription. This regulation is most probably relevant to physiological conditions within the human host which influence gonococcal infections.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Plasmid vector ; Conjugation ; Generalized mutagenesis ; Homologous recombination ; Natural transformation competence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A versatile shuttle system has been developed for genetic complementation with cloned genes of transformable and non-transformable Neisseria mutants. By random insertion of a selectable marker into the conjugative Neisseria plasmid ptetM25.2, a site within this plasmid was identified that is compatible with plasmid replication and with conjugative transfer of plasmid. Regions flanking the permissive insertion site of ptetM25.2 were cloned in Escherichia coli and served as a basis for the construction of the Hermes vectors. Hermes vectors are composed of an E. coli replicon that does not support autonomous replication in Neisseria, e.g. ColE1, p15A, or ori fd, fused with a shuttle consisting of a selectable marker and a multiple cloning site flanked by the integration region of ptetM25.2. Complementation of a non-transformable Neisseria strain involves a three-step process: (i) insertion of the desired gene into a Hermes vector; (ii) transformation of Hermes into a Neisseria strain containing ptetM25.2 to create a hybrid ptetM25.2 via gene replacement by the Hermes shuttle cassette; and (iii) conjugative transfer of the hybrid ptetM25.2 into the final Neisseria recipient. Several applications for the genetic manipulation of pathogenic Neisseriae are described.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MS11 show distinct colony morphologies because of the expression of a class of surface components called opacity (Opa, PII) proteins. Southern analyses combined with molecular cloning of genomic DNA from a single variant of MS11 has identified 11 opa genes contained in separate loci. These opa genes code for distinct opacity proteins which are distinguishable at their variable domains. The opa gene analyses were also extended to divergent variants of MS11. These studies have shown that, during in vitro and in vivo culture, 10 of the 11 opa genes did not undergo significant change in their primary sequence. However, in these variants, one gene (opaE) underwent non-reciprocat inter-opa recombinations to generate newer Opa variants. Phylogenic analysis of the opa gene sequences suggests that the opa gene family have evolved by a combination of gene duplication, gene replacement and partial inter-opa recombination events.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 5 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Phase- and antigenic variation of pilin expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is based on the genetic exchange between silent pilin genes (pilS)and the pilin expression locus (pilE). Similarly, the non-piliated L-variants of strain MS11, which show an increased resistance to certain antibiotics, are the result of recombination with the pilElocus. However, this recombination is atypical in that pilE(L) carries a tandem arrangement of a complete pilin gene and additional partial pilin genes under the control of the same pilE promoter. Since the two pilin gene copies are tandemly arranged and are often in the same translational frame, oversized pilin molecules are produced, which do not assemble into pili. The tandem gene copies introduced in a piiE(L)locus originate from silent loci where they are already joint. Upon reversion to the P+ phenotype the L-variants lose one pilin gene copy from the pilE(L) in a process reminiscent of the deletion events that otherwise lead to the formation of the non-revertible and non-piliated Pn mutants of MS11 gonococci. Thus deletion of pilin genes from pHE can be regarded as a third mechanism of pilin variation in gonococci.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 278 (1979), S. 365-367 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Gene Il-protein was purified from Escherichia coli cells '? ? WIthPhaSe fd mutan* in gene V using the stimulation of DNA synthesis on fd RFI as an assay. The purification steps were ammonium sulphate precipitation and various columns Details of the isolation procedure will be published ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of gastritis, ulcer and stomach carcinoma, infects approximately half of the worlds population. After sequencing the complete genome of two strains, 26695 and J99, we have approached the demanding task of investigating the functional part of the genetic information containing macromolecules, the proteome. The proteins of three strains of H. pylori, 26695 and J99, and a prominent strain used in animal models SS1, were separated by a high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis technique with a resolution power of 5000 protein spots. Up to 1800 protein species were separated from H. pylori which had been cultivated for 5 days on agar plates. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) peptide mass fingerprinting we have identified 152 proteins, including nine known virulence factors and 28 antigens. The three strains investigated had only a few protein spots in common. We observe that proteins with an amino acid exchange resulting in a net change of only one charge are shifted in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) pattern. The expression of 27 predicted conserved hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs) and six unknown ORFs were confirmed. The growth conditions of the bacteria were shown to have an effect on the presence of certain proteins. A preliminary immunoblotting study using human sera revealed that this approach is ideal for identifying proteins of diagnostic or therapeutic value. H. pylori 2-DE patterns with their identified protein species were added to the dynamic 2D-PAGE database (). This basic knowledge of the proteome in the public domain will be an effective instrument for the identification of new virulence or pathogenic factors, and antigens of potentially diagnostic or curative value against H. pylori.
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