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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA fingerprinting of Trichoderma ; Trichoderma reesei ; RFLP ; Strain classification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have analyzed nine different species of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma and three strains of T. reesei for the presence of hypervariable loci in their genomes by hybridization with simple repeat oligonucleotides [(CT)8, (GTG)5, and (GACA)4]. On the basis of the DNA-fingerprints obtained, the Trichoderma aggregate is re-classified into five groups: I (T. reesei, T. todica), II (T. polysporum, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii, and T. pseudokoningii), III (T. virgatum), IV (T. saturnisporum) and V (T. harzianum). These results contradict the claim that T. reesei is a subspecies of T. longibrachiatum. Furthermore, hybridization with (CA)8 allowed a subdivision of group II, wherein T. pseudokoningii formed a subgroup, IIb, which is highly homologous with, but distinct from subgroup IIa. The results show that RFLP analysis may be used to re-classify the Trichoderma aggregate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: DNA fingerprinting of filamentous fungi ; Penicillium ; Trichoderma ; Aspergillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have analyzed 11 strains and clones, representing five species (Penicillium janthinellum, P. citrioviridae, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum) and three genera of filamentous fungi, for the presence of hypervariable loci in their genomes by hybridization with simple repeat oligonucleotides and the DNA of phage M13. The oligonucleotide probes (CT)8, (GTG)5 and (GACA)4, as well as M13 DNA, are informative probes for fingerprinting in all genera and species tested. The probe (GATA)4 produced informative fingerprints only with the genomic DNA of A. niger. There was no similarity between the fingerprints originating from fungi of different genera and also little similarity between the fingerprints of different species belonging to the same genus. Fingerprints of strains of the same species differed only slightly from each other. Fingerprints of clones originating from one strain were identical. The results indicate that DNA fingerprinting is a powerful method to differentiate species and strains of filamentous fungi.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction ; Fingerprinting ; DNA ; Fungi ; Minisatellites ; Simple repetitive sequences ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Minisatellites and simple repetitive DNA sequence motifs are used as conventional oligonucleotide probes in DNA-hybridization-based fingerprinting. The same oligonucleotides can be used as single primers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to generate individual PCR fingerprints. In this study, the simple repetitive sequences, (CA)8, (CT)8, (CAC)5, (GTG)5, (GACA)4 and (GATA)4, and a minisatellite core sequence derived from the wild-type phage M13 (5′ GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT 3′) were used as specific, single primers to amplify hypervariable repetitive DNA sequences during PCR analysis. The potential applications of this technique are demonstrated with clinical isolates of the human pathogenic yeest, Cryptococcus neoformans. PCR fingerprint patterns have remained stable after long-term in vitro passage (〉2½ years to date). Hybridization of the primers to blots of electrophoretically separated chromosomes demonstrated that the target sequences recognized by most of the primers are dispersed through the entire yeast genome. Sequence analysis of the cloned bands obtained by PCR fingerprinting indicated that if the same or extremely similar, inversely oriented tandem repeats are located close to each other, when only one repeat-specific primer is used in the PCR, the region between these repeats is amplified. PCR fingerprinting has a wide range of current and potential applications to fungi, such as clarifying taxonomic questions, facilitating epidemiological studies and improving the diagnosis of mycotic diseases.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction ; Fingerprinting ; Pathogenic yeasts ; Minisatellite ; Simple repetitive sequences ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: With the increase in the number of immunocompromised hosts, the number of fungal pathogens has increased markedly. Identification and classification, especially of yeast species and strains, is often difficult when based solely on phenotypic characteristics. Since it became clear that different fungal pathogens require specific treatment strategies, there is a need for simple, rapid and reliable methods to identify fungal isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting was successfully applied here to identify yeast isolates Microsatellite [(GTG)5; (GACA)4] and minisatellite [(5′GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT 3′), derived from the core-sequence of the phage M13] specific primers were used as single primers in the PCR to amplify hypervariable interrepeat DNA sequences from over 200 European, American and Australian clinical isolates within the genus Candida. Each species, represented by its type strain, could be identified by a specific multilocus pattern, allowing for the assignment of all the isolates to the appropriate species. Intra-species variation in the multilocus profiles was about 20% compared to inter-species variation, which was up to 80%. Anamorph-teleomorph pairs could be identified by highly homologous PCR fingerprint patterns. PCR fingerprinting was more discriminatory when compared with routinely used biochemical tests (Vitek YBC and API ID 32C). PCR fingerprinting has proven to be a powerful tool for the identification of medically important yeasts. It is rapid, sensitive, reliable, highly reproducible, stable in vitro and in vivo, and applicable to large-scale experiments. Potential applications include: yeast taxonomy, epidemiology, environmental surveys, and improvement of the diagnosis of mycotic diseases.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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