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  • 1
    Keywords: ACTIVATION, ANTIGEN, antigen specific, ANTIGENS, CD8(+), CD8(+) T-CELLS, CELL, CELLS, COMPARTMENT-SP
    Abstract: The progression of kidney disease to renal failure correlates with infiltration of mononuclear immune cells into the tubulointerstitium. These infiltrates contain macrophages, DCs, and T cells, but the role of each cell type in disease progression is unclear. To investigate the underlying immune mechanisms, we generated transgenic mice that selectively expressed the model antigens ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme in glomerular podocytes (NOH mice). Coinjection of ovalbumin-specific transgenic CD8(+) CTLs and CD4(+) Th cells into NOH mice resulted in periglomerular mononuclear infiltrates and inflammation of parietal epithelial cells, similar to lesions frequently observed in human chronic glomerulonephritis. Repetitive T cell injections aggravated infiltration and caused progression to structural and functional kidney damage after 4 weeks. Mechanistic analysis revealed that DCs in renal lymph nodes constitutively cross-presented ovalbumin and activated CTLs. These CTLs released further ovalbumin for CTL activation in the lymph nodes and for simultaneous presentation to Th cells by distinct DC subsets residing in the kidney tubulointerstitium. Crosstalk between tubulointerstitial DCs and Th cells resulted in intrarenal cytokine and chemokine production and in recruitment of more CTLs, monocyte-derived DCs, and macrophages. The importance of DCs was established by the fact that DC depletion rapidly resolved established kidney immunopathology. These findings demonstrate that glomerular antigen-specific CTLs and Th cells can jointly induce renal immunopathology and identify kidney DCs as a mechanistic link between glomerular injury and the progression of kidney disease
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19381017
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SYSTEM ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; prostate cancer ; CYCLE PROGRESSION ; p53 ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; P27(KIP1) ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; senescence ; signalling ; tumour suppression ; DEUBIQUITINATING ENZYMES ; PGP9.5 ; ubiquitin system ; UCHL1
    Abstract: Background: We have previously reported significant downregulation of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) in prostate cancer (PCa) compared to the surrounding benign tissue. UCHL1 plays an important role in ubiquitin system and different cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. We now show that the underlying mechanism of UCHL1 downregulation in PCa is linked to its promoter hypermethylation. Furthermore, we present evidences that UCHL1 expression can affect the behavior of prostate cancer cells in different ways. Results: Methylation specific PCR analysis results showed a highly methylated promoter region for UCHL1 in 90% (18/20) of tumor tissue compared to 15% (3/20) of normal tissues from PCa patients. Pyrosequencing results confirmed a mean methylation of 41.4% in PCa whereas only 8.6% in normal tissues. To conduct functional analysis of UCHL1 in PCa, UCHL1 is overexpressed in LNCaP cells whose UCHL1 expression is normally suppressed by promoter methylation and found that UCHL1 has the ability to decrease the rate of cell proliferation and suppresses anchorage-independent growth of these cells. In further analysis, we found evidence that exogenous expression of UCHL1 suppress LNCaP cells growth probably via p53-mediated inhibition of Akt/PKB phosphorylation and also via accumulation of p27kip1 a cyclin dependant kinase inhibitor of cell cycle regulating proteins. Notably, we also observed that exogenous expression of UCHL1 induced a senescent phenotype that was detected by using the SA-beta-gal assay and might be due to increased p14ARF, p53, p27kip1 and decreased MDM2. Conclusion: From these results, we propose that UCHL1 downregulation via promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in various molecular aspects of PCa biology, such as morphological diversification and regulation of proliferation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21999842
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  • 3
    Keywords: DENDRITIC CELLS ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS ; URINARY-TRACT-INFECTION ; BACTERIAL-INFECTION ; BASEMENT-MEMBRANES
    Abstract: The phagocytes of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, contribute to antibacterial defense, but their functional specialization and cooperation is unclear. Here, we report that three distinct phagocyte subsets play highly coordinated roles in bacterial urinary tract infection. Ly6C(-) macrophages acted as tissue-resident sentinels that attracted circulating neutrophils and Ly6C(+) macrophages. Such Ly6C(+) macrophages played a previously undescribed helper role: once recruited to the site of infection, they produced the cytokine TNF, which caused Ly6C(-) macrophages to secrete CXCL2. This chemokine activated matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neutrophils, allowing their entry into the uroepithelium to combat the bacteria. In summary, the sentinel macrophages elicit the powerful antibacterial functions of neutrophils only after confirmation by the helper macrophages, reminiscent of the licensing role of helper T cells in antiviral adaptive immunity. These findings identify helper macrophages and TNF as critical regulators in innate immunity against bacterial infections in epithelia.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24485454
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