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  • 1
    ISSN: 0167-5087
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone mineral density ; Calcium ; Elderly ; Femoral neck ; Fracture ; Osteoporosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efficacy of calcium (Ca) in reducing bone loss is debated. In a randomized placebo-controlled double-masked study, we investigated the effects of oral Ca supplements on femoral shaft (FS), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), and on the incidence of vertebral fracture in vitamin-D-replete elderly. Ninety-three healthy subjects (72.1±0.6 years) were randomly allocated to three groups receiving 800 mg/day Ca in two different forms or a placebo for 18 months. Sixty-three patients (78.4±1.0 years) with a recent hip fracture were allocated to two groups receiving the two forms of Ca without placebo. FS BMD changes in Ca-supplemented non-fractured women were significantly different from those in the placebo group (+0.6±0.5% v −1.2±0.7%,p〈0.05). There was no difference in effect between the two forms of Ca. The changes of +0.7±0.8% v −1.7±1.6% in FN BMD of Ca-supplemented women and the placebo group did not reach statistical significance. In fractured patients, FS, FN and LS BMD changes were −1.3±0.8, +0.3±1.6 and +3.1±1.2% (p〈0.05 for the last). The rate of new vertebral fractures was 74.3 and 106.2 fractures per 1000 patient-years in Ca-supplemented non-fractured subjects and in the placebo group, respectively, and 144.0 in Ca-supplemented fractured patients. Thus, oral Ca supplements prevented a femoral BMD decrease and lowered vertebral fracture rate in the elderly.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone mineral density ; Elderly ; Osteoporosis ; Protein ; Under nutrition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dietary protein and/or calorie insufficiencies represent an important problem in elderly patients. The biological and clinical implications, and particularly the influence on bone mass of undernutrition in the elderly, have not been completely defined, although several studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of dietary insufficiencies in patients with a recent fracture of the proximal femur. In the present study the relationship between dietary intakes, physical performance and bone mineral density (BMD) was examined in hospitalized elderly patients. The study comprised 74 patients (48 women, mean age 82 years; and 26 men, mean age 80 years) who were hospitalized for various medical indications. They were divided into two groups according to their dietary protein intakes, evaluated during the first 28 days in hospital while on a regular diet. The first group consisted of 26 patients (14 women and 12 men) whose protein intake was equal to or greater than 1 g per kilogram of ideal body weight. The second group consisted of 48 patients (34 women and 14 men) who consumed less than 1 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight. The two groups differed also in their energy, carbohydrate, lipid and calcium intakes. Patients in the group with the higher protein intake displayed higher BMD at the level of the femoral neck as measured by dual-photon absorptiometry. The men in this group also had higher lumbar spine BMD. After 4 weeks in hospital the women with a higher protein intake had significantly enhanced bicipital and quadricipital muscle strength and better performance as indicated by the increased capacity to climb stairs. These results indicate that lower dietary intakes in hospitalized elderly patients without fractures are associated with lower physical performance and lower femoral neck BMD. Thus, the role of dietary factors, including protein, in the risk of proximal femoral fractures deserves further investigation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words: Senile plaques – Neurofibrillary tangles – Dementia – Neocortex – Clinicopathological correlations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. To examine the neuropathological and clinical characteristics of cerebral aging, we evaluated retrospectively a non-selected autopsy population of 1258 patients from the Geriatric Hospital of the University of Geneva School of Medecine. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease increased with age below 90 years of age. In the nonagenarians and centenarians, there was a decline in the number of affected cases. The distribution with age of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques varied among the cortical areas studied. The CA1 field of the hippocampus and the inferior temporal cortex displayed increasing densities of neurofibrillary tangles with age, whereas the superior frontal and the occipital cortex were relatively spared, especially in patients in their tenth and eleventh decade. The percentage of cases presenting with senile plaques in the neocortex and hippocampal structure increased with age with a marked predominance of cases with moderate to high senile plaque densities. Neurofibrillary tangles were often observed in the CA1 field and the inferior temporal cortex of non-demented individuals and were present in most cases with Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, the involvement of the superior frontal and occipital cortex was moderate even in demented patients. The distribution of senile plaques was homogeneous in all of the neocortical areas independently of the clinical diagnosis. Moreover, there was no correlation between the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in the cerebral regions studied. These results indicate a differential topography of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, and suggest that overt clinical signs of Alzheimer's disease are linked to the progression of the neurodegenerative process in neocortical areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Alzheimer’s disease ; Clinicopathological correlations ; Cognitive impairment ; dementia ; Neurofibrillary tangles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several studies have demonstrated a good correlation between clinical severity and Braak’s neuropathological staging in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, nonagenarians and centenarians display a different pattern of cortical vulnerability to the neurodegenerative process compared to younger elderly, and it is not known whether correlations between clinical severity and neuropathological stages remain valid in this age group. To address this issue we compared Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores and Braak stages in 116 patients over 90 years of age with either no cognitive impairment or very mild to severe AD. There is a strong positive correlation between CDR scores and Braak staging (Spearman coefficient = 0.66; P 〈 0.01). However, neuropathological staging does not distinguish cases with normal cognition (CDR 0) from those with mild cognitive changes (CDR 0.5). Unlike younger cohorts, Braak stages I and II are frequently associated with questionable dementia in this age group. Braak stage III overlaps with all CDR levels and correlates poorly with cognitive function. Braak stages IV or greater are consistently associated with at least mild dementia. Consistent with our previous neuropathological analyses of nonagenarians and centenarians, the present data suggest that the substantial involvement of the hippocampus which characterizes Braak stage IV is a key step in the development of overt clinical signs of dementia in the oldest-old. Moreover, they indicate that Braak staging represents a broad concept of the evolution of neurofibrillary tangles rather than a precise hierarchical model associated with a stepwise deterioration of cognitive abilities near the upper limit of life.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Senile plaques ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Dementia ; Neocortex ; Clinicopathological correlations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To examine the neuropathological and clinical characteristics of cerebral aging, we evaluated retrospectively a non-selected autopsy population of 1258 patients from the Geriatric Hospital of the University of Geneva School of Medecine. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease increased with age below 90 years of age. In the nonagenarians and centenarians, there was a decline in the number of affected cases. The distribution with age of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques varied among the cortical areas studied. The CA1 field of the hippocampus and the inferior temporal cortex displayed increasing densities of neurofibrillary tangles with age, whereas the superior frontal and the occipital cortex were relatively spared, especially in patients in their tenth and eleventh decade. The percentage of cases presenting with senile plaques in the neocortex and hippocampal structure increased with age with a marked predominance of cases with moderate to high senile plaque densities. Neurofibrillary tangles were often observed in the CA1 field and the inferior temporal cortex of non-demented individuals and were present in most cases with Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, the involvement of the superior frontal and occipital cortex was moderate even in demented patients. The distribution of senile plaques was homogeneous in all of the neocortical areas independently of the clinical diagnosis. Moreover, there was no correlation between the presence of heurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques in the cerebral regions studied. These results indicate a differential topography of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, and suggest that overt clinical signs of Alzheimer's disease are linked to the progression of the neurodegenerative process in neocortical areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cortical connections ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Neuropathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To examine the neuroanatomical correlates of spatial and temporal disorientation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we performed an anterograde clinicopathological study of 29 patients with clinically and neuropathologically confirmed AD. Spatial and temporal disorientation was assessed using the locational orientation subtests of the Mini Mental State Examination and the Benton’s test for temporal orientation. Quantitative analysis of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques were performed in the CA1 field of the hippocampus, layers II and V of the entorhinal cortex, and layers II–III and V–VI of areas 9, 7, 39, 19, 37, 20 and 23 in the right hemisphere. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between lesion densities and the presence of either spatial or temporal disorientation; severity scores and brain weight were included as covariants. A statistically significant relationship was found between neurofibrillary tangle densities in Brodmann’s areas 7, 23 and the CA1 field of hippocampus and both spatial and temporal disorientation. Senile plaque counts did not correlate with any of the neuropsychological parameters. Both temporal and spatial disorientation in AD are related to the degeneration of the same pathways linking the hippocampus with the superior parietal and posterior cingulate cortex in the right hemisphere. These observations are discussed with respect to the notion of global corticocortical disconnection in AD.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Senile plaques ; Neurofibrillary tangles ; Centenarians ; Immunohistochemistry ; Quantitative neuropathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To investigate the neuropathological differences between normal aging and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) in very old people and to see how they compare with a younger population of demented elderly people, we performed an immunohistochemical quantitative analysis of the topography of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in a series of 31 elderly patients aged from 96 to 102 years. According to the medical records, two groups were considered: 7 patients presenting with clinically documented SDAT and 24 patients with no or very mild cognitive impairment. The densities of senile plaques were comparable in both groups. Extensive neurofibrillary tangle formation was restricted to the CA1 hippocampal field of demented subjects, whereas the superior frontal cortex showed rare neurofibrillary tangles, independently of the clinical diagnosis. These results indicate an absence of direct correlation between the number of senile plaques and the clinical manifestation of SDAT. Furthermore, they suggest that the dementing process may involve different cortical structures in nonagenarians and centenarians than in younger demented individuals where a widespread cortical involvement is generally observed. Thus, the neurofibrillary tangle density in the CA1 field may be critical for the neuropathological diagnosis of SDAT in this particular group of very old patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. By combining X-ray diffraction under grazing incidence (GIXD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements, we have determined the structure of 4-n-octyl-4’-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) molecules adsorbed on MoS2, under the thick organic film. The commensurability of the adsorbed network and the unit cell structure have been determined, revealing a complex 2D structure. This structure is characterized by straight ribbons with two types of ribbons, alternatively stacked. In one type, molecules are equally spaced, as they are paired in the other type. Considering the energetics of adsorption with a model of single ribbon, we recover the two observed ribbon structures. The alternate stacking of the ribbons appears as a consequence of the connection between the commensurabilities in the two main crystallographic directions. Moreover, we have found a particularly high value for the molecule-substrate potential corrugations, indicating that the dipole moment of 8CB molecules could play a fundamental role in the molecule-substrate interactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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