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  • 1
    Abstract: We examined acceptability, preference and feasibility of collecting nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, followed by microbiome analysis, in a population-based study with 524 participants. Anterior nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected by certified personnel. In addition, participants self-collected nasal swabs at home four weeks later. Four swab types were compared regarding (1) participants' satisfaction and acceptance and (2) detection of microbial community structures based on deep sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene V1-V2 variable regions. All swabbing methods were highly accepted. Microbial community structure analysis revealed 846 phylotypes, 46 of which were unique to oropharynx and 164 unique to nares. The calcium alginate tipped swab was found unsuitable for microbiome determinations. Among the remaining three swab types, there were no differences in oropharyngeal microbiomes detected and only marginal differences in nasal microbiomes. Microbial community structures did not differ between staff-collected and self-collected nasal swabs. These results suggest (1) that nasal and oropharyngeal swabbing are highly feasible methods for human population-based studies that include the characterization of microbial community structures in these important ecological niches, and (2) that self-collection of nasal swabs at home can be used to reduce cost and resources needed, particularly when serial measurements are to be taken.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28500287
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1285
    Keywords: Key words VDDR pacemaker – DDDR pacemaker – paroxysmal atrial fibrillation – automatic mode switch ; Schlüsselwörter VDDR‐Schrittmacher – DDDR‐Schritmacher – intermittierendes Vorhofflimmern – Vorhofstimulation – automatischer Moduswechsel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei Patienten mit AV‐Block 2., 3. Grades und intermittierendem Vorhofflimmern bestände die Indikation für ein VDDR‐Schrittmachersystem, wenn nicht oder nur selten im Vorhof stimuliert würde. Deshalb wurde bei 23 Patienten mit diesen Charakteristika 1 Monat nach Implantation eines DDDR‐Schrittmachers geprüft, wie häufig sie im Vorhof stimuliert wurden; Patienten mit 〈 10 % Vorhofstimulation wurden solchen mit ≥ 10 % Vorhofstimulation gegenübergestellt. Falls automatischer Moduswechsel aktiviert war, wurde die Anzahl der Moduswechselepisoden als Marker für die Häufigkeit atrialer Tachyarrhythmien erfaßt. Vorhofstimulation 〈 10 % der Zeit lag bei 7 Patienten, eine Stimulation zwischen 10 und 19 % bei 6, zwischen 20 und 29 % bei 2 und ≥ 30 % der Zeit bei 8 Patienten vor. Fünf der 7 Patienten mit 〈 10 % Vorhofstimulation wurden im DDD‐Modus, hingegen nur 4 der 16 Patienten mit ≥ 10 % stimuliert. Patienten mit seltenerer Vorhofstimulation ließen sich nicht anhand ihrer klinischen Befunde vorhersagen. Sowohl Patienten mit 〈 10 % als auch solche mit ≥ 10 % Vorhofstimulation hatten jeweils in 67 % 〈 10 Moduswechselepisoden. Schlußfolgerungen: Im Kurzzeitverlauf nach DDDR‐Schritmacherimplatation wurden bei z.Z. üblichen Schrittmacherprogrammierungen 30 % der Patienten mit intermittierendem Vorhofflimmern und AV‐Block 2., 3. Grades selten – d.h. 〈 10 % der Zeit im Vorhof – stimuliert. Diese Patienten wären möglicherweise für VDDR‐Stimulation geeignet. Seltenere Vorhofstimulation hatte keinen Einfluß auf die Häufigkeit eines automatischen Moduswechsels.
    Notes: Summary Patients with 2nd or 3rd degree AV‐block and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation could be suitable for VDDR pacemakers, if they are not or rarely paced in the atrium. We studied in 23 of these patients 1 month after DDDR pacemaker implantation, how often they were paced in the atrium with usual pacemaker programmings; patients with 〈 10% atrial pacing were compared with patients with ≥ 10 % atrial pacing. In case automatic mode switch was programmed on, the number of mode switch episodes was assessed as a marker for the frequency of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Atrial pacing 〈 10 % of the time occurred in seven, pacing from 10 to 19 % in six, from 20 to 29 % in two, and ≥ 30 % of the time in eight patients. Five of the seven patients with 〈 10 % atrial pacing were paced in the DDD mode, but only four of 16 patients with ≥ 10 %. Usual clinical findings were unable to predict patients with rare atrial pacing. Patients with 〈 10 % as well as with ≥ 10 % atrial pacing had 〈 10 mode switch episodes in 67 % each. Conclusions: During short‐term follow‐up after DDDR pacemaker implantation 30 % of the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and second or third degree AV‐block, with present usual pacemaker programmings, rarely had atrial pacing, that means 〈 10 % of the time. These patients would be probably suitable for VDDR pacemakers. Rare atrial pacing had no influence on the occurrence of automatic mode switch episodes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 38 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) activity was examined in the perikarya and proximal axonal stumps of frog motoneurons injured by ventral root transection. Based upon measurements of net AChE accumulation in the proximal stumps of transected ventral roots, and upon orthograde clearances of AChE reported by others, it was determined that an amount of AChE equivalent to at least 0.7–2 times the perikaryal content of this enzyme enters the motor axon each day. A progressive decrease in the rate of AChE accumulation in transected axons during the first 3 days after ventral rhizotomy raised the possibility that excess enzyme might accumulate elsewhere within the axotomized motoneurons. However, AChE accumulation was detected only near the cut ends of the ventral roots and was not appreciably increased within injured motoneuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites, which were isolated by a new method combining bulk and single-cell isolation techniques. These data suggest that AChE turnover is altered rapidly in response to axonal injury, thereby avoiding large perikaryal accumulations of this enzyme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0168-1923
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geography , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4978
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Free cytoplasmic 40S mRNP particles from rat liver were treated with EDTA and separated into two populations of RNP particles with sedimentation maxima of 20S and 35S, respectively. A characteristic set of distinct scRNAs is found for 20S and 35S RNP particles. The sequences of two of the most abundant scRNAs from 20S RNP particles with chain lengths of 104 (α1-RNA) and 124 (β1-RNA) nucleotides, respectively, are presented. α1-RNA shows a high sequence homology to the 3′-end of 18S rRNA. Since α1-RNA carries a cap, it cannot be a degradation product of 18S rRNA. The β1-RNA is strongly post-transcriptionally modified, but uncapped. When the individual scRNAs of 20S and 35S RNP particles isolated from preparative polyacrylamide gels were assayed for their capability to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis, several potent translational inhibitory RNAs were detected. Particularly, the scRNAs of 147, 203 and 263 nucleotide length associated with the 35S RNP particles turned out to be strong inhibitors of protein synthesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Bengal Shelf ; seismic stratigraphy ; Parasound ; Late Quaternary ; subaqueous delta ; lowstand delta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An ultra-high-resolution seismic study of the eastern Bengal Shelf with the parametric narrow-beam echosounder Parasound allows the interpretation of late Quaternary depositional patterns in terms of seismic stratigraphy. Accommodation space was still present on the outer shelf during the last lowstand, where a prograding delta developed in the western survey area. Oolitic beach ridges were later formed on top of this lowstand delta. Farther east, large parts of the shelf were exposed to subaerial erosion and a river system extended seaward across the area. A subaqueous highstand delta prograded southwards following the maximum transgression about 7,000 years ago. Its foreset beds exhibit acoustic voids very likely generated by sediment liquefaction, possibly caused by episodic energetic events such as major cyclones and/or earthquakes. Bottomset sediments extend seaward close to the shelf break in the west, whereas no Holocene sediments cover the outer shelf in the east.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Background: During puberty, mammary tissue undergoes rapid development, which provides a window of heightened susceptibility of breast composition to the influence of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) may affect breast development and composition and the risk of developing breast cancer in adulthood. Methods: We evaluated the associations between breast density and urinary concentrations of phenols and phthalates collected at Tanner 1 (B1) and Tanner 4 (B4) in 200 Chilean girls. Total breast volume (BV), fibroglandular volume (FGV), and percent dense breast (%FGV) were evaluated at B4 using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between concentrations of EDC biomarkers across puberty and breast density. Results: The geometric mean %FGV was 7% higher among girls in the highest relative to the lowest tertile of monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate [1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.14]. Monoethyl phthalate concentrations at B4 were positively associated with FGV (highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06–1.40). Bisphenol A displayed a U-shaped association with FGV; girls in the middle tertile had at least 10% lower FGV than girls in the lowest or highest tertiles. Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate showed a nonlinear association with BV. No other statistically significant associations were observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the developing breast tissue is susceptible to select EDCs during childhood and adolescence. Impact: This study may spur further investigations into environmental influences on breast development during puberty and how shifts in pubertal breast density track through the life course to modify breast cancer risk.
    Print ISSN: 1055-9965
    Electronic ISSN: 1538-7755
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Purpose: KEAP1 and NFE2L2 mutations are associated with impaired prognosis in a variety of cancers and with squamous cell carcinoma formation in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about frequency, histology dependence, molecular and clinical presentation as well as response to systemic treatment in NSCLC. Experimental Design: Tumor tissue of 1,391 patients with NSCLC was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical and pathologic characteristics, survival, and treatment outcome of patients with KEAP1 or NFE2L2 mutations were assessed. Results: KEAP1 mutations occurred with a frequency of 11.3% ( n = 157) and NFE2L2 mutations with a frequency of 3.5% ( n = 49) in NSCLC patients. In the vast majority of patients, both mutations did not occur simultaneously. KEAP1 mutations were found mainly in adenocarcinoma (AD; 72%), while NFE2L2 mutations were more common in squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC; 59%). KEAP1 mutations were spread over the whole protein, whereas NFE2L2 mutations were clustered in specific hotspot regions. In over 80% of the patients both mutations co-occurred with other cancer-related mutations, among them also targetable aberrations like activating EGFR mutations or MET amplification. Both patient groups showed different patterns of metastases, stage distribution and performance state. No patient with KEAP1 mutation had a response on systemic treatment in first-, second-, or third-line setting. Of NFE2L2 -mutated patients, none responded to second- or third-line therapy. Conclusions: KEAP1 - and NFE2L2 -mutated NSCLC patients represent a highly heterogeneous patient cohort. Both are associated with different histologies and usually are found together with other cancer-related, partly targetable, genetic aberrations. In addition, both markers seem to be predictive for chemotherapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3087–96. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-19
    Description: This is an exciting time for scientific discovery that aims to reduce the frequency and impact of neurological, mental health and substance-use disorders. As it became increasingly clear that low- and middle-income countries have a disproportionate share of these disorders, and that many of the problems are best addressed by indigenous researchers who can seek context-sensitive solutions, the US National Institutes of Health and other research funders began to invest more in low- and middle-income country-focused research and research capacity-building to confront this significant public health challenge. In an effort to identify existing information, knowledge gaps, and emerging research and research capacity-building opportunities that are particularly relevant to low- and middle-income countries, in February 2014 the Center for Global Health Studies at the National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center held a workshop to explore these issues with scientific experts from low- and middle-income countries and the United States. This evolved into the preparation of the Reviews in this supplement, which is designed to highlight opportunities and challenges associated with topical areas in brain-disorders research over the coming decade. This Introduction highlights some of the over-arching and intersecting priorities for addressing causes, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation as well as best practices to promote overall nervous system health. We review some brain disorders in low- and middle-income countries, while the Reviews describe relevant issues and the epidemiology of particular conditions in greater depth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Silberberg, Donald -- Anand, Nalini P -- Michels, Kathleen -- Kalaria, Raj N -- G0400074/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0502157/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900652/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 19;527(7578):S151-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16028.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Division of International Science Policy, Planning and Evaluation and Center for Global, Health Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Division of International Research and Training, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE4 5PL, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580320" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Aging ; Biomedical Research/economics/organization & administration ; Brain Diseases/economics/epidemiology ; Child ; Cost of Illness ; Developing Countries/economics/statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; *International Cooperation ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration ; *Nervous System Diseases/economics/epidemiology ; Research Support as Topic ; Substance-Related Disorders/economics/epidemiology ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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