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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Epidemiology ; Public Health ; Biostatistics ; Statistics  ; Artificial intelligence ; Biomedicine, general ; Epidemiology ; Public Health ; Biostatistics ; Statistics for Life Sciences, Medicine, Health Sciences ; Artificial intelligence ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Foreword -- Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Essence of Clinical Medicine -- Essence of Clinical Research -- Clinical Research and Clinical Medicine at present -- Clinical Research Transformative of Clinical Medicine -- Core Concepts of Epidemiology and Epidemiological Research -- The Epidemiological Interface of Gnostic Clinical Research -- The Logistic Regression Model -- Statistics from the Model’s Fitting to Gnostic Data -- The Types of Diagnostic Challenge and Needs for Knowledge -- Harvesting Experts’ Diagnostic Probability Estimates -- Objects Design for a Diagnostic Probability Study -- Methods Design for a Diagnostic Probability Study -- The Bayes’ Theorem Framework for Diagnostic Research -- Research Focused on Diagnostic Tests -- Introduction to Etiognostic Research -- Objects Design for an Etiognostic Study -- Methods Design for an Etiognostic Study -- Introduction to Prognostic Research -- Example: Research on ‘Hormone Replacement Therapy’ -- Prognostic Probability Functions from Clinical-trial Data -- Non-experimental Intervention-prognostic Studies -- Intervention-prognostic Derivative Research -- Theory of Medicine Defining the Essential Missions for Clinical Research -- Theory of Clinical Research for Its Essential - Gnosis-serving - Missions -- Toward Worldwide Scientific Clinical Medicine -- Glossary -- Appendix 1: What about ‘Machine Learning’?- Appendix 2: On Excellence of Epidemiologic Academia -- Index
    Abstract: This book delineates the fundamental transformations that, according to its precepts, are now needed in the objects and methods of ́€˜patient-oriented́€™ clinical research, in order to make it genuinely patient-relevant. These transformations are presented as providing for transition from todaý€™s €˜évidence-based́€™ practices (advocated by ́€˜clinical epidemiologistś€™) to knowledge-based succedanea of these. While those existing practices vary according to doctorś€™ personal opinions about the burden of the available evidence, their knowledge-based succedanea will be essentially invariant across individual doctors, as theý€™ll be guided by €˜éxpert systemś€™ (imbedded in cyberspace). At issue in this is transformation in what the authors present as the very essence of clinical medicine, namely clinical doctorś€™ esoteric ad-hoc knowing: ́€œgnosis.́€ This is clinical doctorś€™ knowing ́€” probabilistic ́€” about relevant-but-hidden truths about their patientś€™ health, and constitutes the basis for their teaching (́€œdoctorinǵ€) the patients about these esoteric insights. The probabilities are ́€˜personalized́€™ in the meaning of their specificity to the caseś€™ gnostic profiles. Genuinely patient-relevant clinical knowledge this book presents as the requisite basis for three species of clinical doctorś€™ gnosis: diagnosis ́€” knowing about whether a particular type of illness is present (though hidden) in the patient; etiognosis ́€” knowing about whether the patient́€™s illness was caused by a particular antecedent of it; and prognosis ́€” knowing about the patient́€™s future health, including as to its dependence on the choice of treatment. Pivotal in gnostic clinical research this book presents to be the studieś€™ objects design in terms of a statistical model for the rate of occurrence of the entity of health in question, in a defined domain of case presentations. The essentials of the studieś€™ methods designs are deduced from their objects designs. Study of this book ́€” on the theory of ́€œmeta-epidemiological clinical research́€ ́€” is essential preparation for teaching ́€˜patient-oriented́€™ clinical research and for actual design & conduct of the studies and of their critical reviews. And by the same token, study of this book is essential preparation for the needed replacement of ́€˜case-based learninǵ€™ of clinical medicine, for suitably-learned teaching of the practice of clinical medicine ́€” focused on the status quo of the scientific knowledge-base for (gnoses in) the discipline (́€˜specialtý€™) at issue
    Pages: XXIV, 302 p. 2 illus. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030061760
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Epidemiology ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400745377
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  • 3
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    Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Medical records / Data processing ; Epidemiology ; Medical ethics ; Medicine & Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Theory of Medicine/Bioethics ; Health Informatics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048195015
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  • 4
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    Dordrecht : Springer
    Call number: M110:9
    Keywords: Epidemiologic Methods ; Biomedical Research / methods
    Notes: Also ebook available, see link below.
    Pages: xiii, 186 p.
    ISBN: 9789400745360
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    M110:9 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
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  • 5
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    Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Biometrics ; Statistical methods ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Epidemiology ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Biometrics ; Biostatistics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789400711716
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Conjugated estrogens ; endometrial cancer ; etiology ; females ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To examine the decline in risk of endometrial cancer after discontinuation of use of conjugated estrogens, we conducted a case-control study in a prepaid health plan. We identified 318 patients who had endometrial cancer but had no history of bilateral oophorectomy and had been in the Southern California (United States) Kaiser Foundation Health Plan for more than 10 years. For each patient, one or two control members were selected, 599 in all, matched for age and duration of membership at the time of cancer detection and who had had neither hysterectomy nor bilateral oophorectomy. A history of prescriptions for conjugated estrogens and of potential confounders was obtained for each subject by reviewing outpatient medical records. Rate ratios (RR) contrasting users with nonusers were estimated by time of latest prescription. We found that estrogen-induced risk of endometrial cancer decreases rapidly as the estrogen-free interval increases. The RR estimates, adjusted for duration of use and potential confounding factors, declined from 5.0 for those receiving their latest prescription within 24 months (95 percent confidence limits [CL]=2.6–9.8), to 1.8 for those receiving their latest prescription within 24 to 48 months (CL=0.9–3.7), to values near one for each latest prescription interval earlier than 48 months ago (P for trend = 0.0004). For those who used conjugated estrogens extensively (five or more prescriptions, five to 10 years ago), the RR estimate declined from 5.1 for those whose latest prescription was within two years to 0.6 yr for those whose latest prescription was four to five years previously (P for trend = 0.05).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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