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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Intensive care medicine 20 (1994), S. 249-250 
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cultivar x environment interactions ; Stability-variance parameter ; Single degree of freedom interaction ; Saccharum sp.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Selection of test locations, representative of conditions and practices of an area can be a challenging process in a breeding program. Data from two groups of sugarcane (trispecies hybrids of Saccharum sp.) cultivar experiments in Florida were analyzed to determine if relative cultivar response at any two of six current locations was sufficiently similar so that at least one location could be replaced by a location with a different environment. The parameter analyzed was metric tons per ha of sugar (THS). To determine similarity between location pairs for all cultivars within each group of cultivars, an unbiased stability-variance parameter ( $$\hat \sigma _{ i}^2$$ ) developed by Shukla was used. After $$\hat \sigma _{ i}^2$$ identified similar location pairs, single degree of freedom interactions were calculated for important cultivars to determine which of the location pairs identified by $$\hat \sigma _{ i}^2$$ contained the two most similar locations. Use of the above procedure can assist in making optimum location assignments in a breeding program.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Heritability ; Repeatability ; Cytoplasmic effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Inheritance of first, maximum and average flowering date and percent flowering was investigated in sugarcane crosses involving early, mid, and late flowering parents in all possible combinations. Parental and f1 progeny data were taken on plant crops in 1983 and 1984 and a ratoon crop in 1985. Individuals in 1984 and 1985 were clones of the genotypes used in 1983. Heritabilities within years ranged between 0 and 0.3, indicating only moderate additive genetic variance. Approximately 30% to 50% of the observed variation could be attributed to genetic sources as measured by repeatability estimates. Contribution of female parents was more important than male parents, indicating an important role for cytoplasmic effects in flowering response. Heritabilities based on females were substantially larger than corresponding male estimates. Progeny flowered less frequently and later than parents, suggesting that early, frequent flowering depended on specific gene combinations which were lost during crossing.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Puccinia graminis ; Aneuploid ; Cytogenetics ; Monosomics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The chromosomal locations of genes for resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.: Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Waldron’ (WDR) were determined by monosomic analyses. Wheat lines WDR-B1, -C2, -E4, and -F1,which have single genes for resistance to stem rust derived previously from WDR sel. ‘Little Club’, were crossed onto a complete set of 21 ‘Chinese Spring’ monosomics. The F2 and backcross-F1 (BC1F1) seedlings from each of the 84 crosses were tested for reaction to culture 111-SS2 (CRL-LCBB) of stem rust, and a few selected segregants were analyzed cytologically for chromosome number. The F2 from 2 crosses of WDR-C2, -E4 and -F1 and the BC1F1 from 2 crosses of WDR-F1 were tested also with culture Or11c (CRL-QBCN). Significant deviations from disomic ratios towards monosomic ratios in the F2 and BC1F1 were used to determine which chromosomes carried the genes for resistance. Cytological analyses of certain BC1F1 and susceptible F2 plants were used to help identify the location of the genes for rust resistance. WDR-B1 has a gene, herein designated Sr41, for resistance on chromosome 4D. WDR-C2 has a gene on chromosome 7 A that may be the same as one previously designated SrWld2. WDR-E4 has a gene on chromosome 2A, possibly SrWld1, which is effective against most or all North American stem rust cultures. WDR-F1 has a gene on chromosome 6B that is the same as or similar to Sr11.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Puccinia graminis ; Allelism ; Inheritance ; Segregation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Triticum aestivum L. cultivar ‘Waldron’ has long lasting resistance to most North American stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) isolates. The objective of this research was to develop wheat lines monogenic for resistance to stem rust from ‘Waldron’ using allelism tests and tests for reaction to a series of ten stem rust cultures having a range of virulences. Twelve lines homozygous for single resistance genes were selected as parents of a diallel cross to test for allelism among genes for resistance. We identified 6 lines or groups of lines (WDR-A1, the WDR-B1 and WDR-B2 group, the WDR-C1 and WDR-C2 group, WDR-D1, the WDR-E1, WDR-E2, WDR-E3, and WDR-E4 group, and WDR-F1) that carried different single genes for resistance from ‘Waldron’. A seventh line (WDR-G1) probably has two genes for resistance, one in common with WDR-C1 and WDR-C2. The gene in the WDR-E group is probably the same as SrWld1, and the one in WDR-F1 the same as Sri11. ‘Waldron’ probably has two or more genes for resistance to stem rust that previous genetic studies did not detect.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Stability variance ; Genotype x environment interaction ; Adaptation ; Saccharum ; Sugarcane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The stability-variance statistic, ĝs i 2 , measures the contribution of the ith genotype to genotype x environment interaction. In addition to the knowledge of cultivar stability for an agronomic trait, information on whether stability of one trait can be used to predict stability of another should be useful to breeders. Three separate groups of data, respectively involving CP 79 series, CP 80 series, and CP 81 series experimental clones of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) were used in this study. Rank-correlation coefficients (rs) between ranks of genotypes for ĝs i 2 's for paired traits indicated in both plant-cane and ratoon crops that stability of tons per hectare of sugar can be predicted from the stability of tons per hectare of cane (THC) and also, to a lesser extent, from the stability of stalk number. The stability of THC also can be reasonably well predicted from the stability of stalk number. Brix stability may give some indication of the stabilities for percentage sucrose and sugar concentration (SC). The ĝs i 2 's for percentage sucrose and SC were almost identical in the CP 79 and CP 81 series (rs varied from 0.93, P〈0.01, in plant-cane crop for CP 79 series to 0.98, P〈0.01, in plant-cane crop for CP 81 series). Whether correlations were based on ĝs i 2 's estimated across locations within crops or across crops, the magnitude of rs was about the same. Means of various traits were not correlated with their respective ĝs i 2 's (for CP 81 series), indicating that identification and selection of high-yielding sugarcane genotypes with a relatively high degree of stability of performance across test environments should be possible.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Experimental Concussion ; Peroxidase, neuronal uptake ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neuronal inundation with i.v. infused horseradish peroxidase was studied following concussive brain injury by means of both light and electron microscopy. In animals sustaining mechanical brain injury of insufficient intensity as to elicit either microscopic intraparenchymal hemorrhage or other neuropathological change, yet of sufficient intensity as to provoke a physiological concussive response, vascular peroxidase exudation concomitant with neuronal peroxidase inundation occurred throughout the raphe and reticular core. Initially such inundated neurons were totally flooded with the tracer and as such appeared reminiscent of cells visualized in Golgi preparations. However, over the course of a 24-h period these peroxidase flooded neurons apparently organized the peroxidase into vesicles and vacuoles which assumed a perinuclear position from where the peroxidase ultimately reached both the nucleus und nucleolus. It was remarkable that these events occurred without any evidence of subcellular alteration. We interpret such initial inundation with this protein tracer, its ultimate reorganization, and its nuclear and nucleolar uptake as being consistent with some form of subtle and transient neuronal perturbation. We speculate that as such this neuronal perturbation may constitute a morphological correlate of the concussive episode.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brain edema ; cerebral blood flow ; brain tissue hydraulic resistance ; somatosensory evoked potential ; intracranial pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To evaluate the potency of putative secondary mediators of brain edema and their possible contribution to edema related brain dysfunction an infusion model of brain edema was developed in rats. 100 ul of fluid (saline, 20% nonautologous protein) was infused over one hour into the left forebrain white matter through a stereotaxically placed (+ 1.2 mm ant to bregma, 3 mm lateral and 2.9 mm depth) 25 G needle. Brain tissue hydraulic resistance (Rt), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and intracranial pressure (ICP) (intraventricular needle) were monitored during the infusion and rCBF CO2 reactivity (hydrogen clearance), local brain water content (microgravimetry), BBB integrity (Evans Blue 2%) and brain histology (H & E, Solochrome-cyanin) were evaluated after the infusion. Saline infusates caused no physiological dysfunction despite ipsilateral expansion and vacuolation of the subcortical white matter, separation of axonal bundles and a significant decrease (p=3.8×10−5)in local subcortical tissue specific gravity. Cortical histology and specific gravity adjacent to the infusion locus were normal. Rt significantly decreased (p=6.5×10−4) during the infusion but there were only minor increases in ICP. Findings with 20% protein infusates were similar despite a focal 65% decrement in the rCBF CO2 reactivity adjacent to the infusion site. This study has shown that a simple and inexpensive model of infusion brain edema can be created in the rat and that it provides a useful model for assessing the physiological effects of mediator compounds in the infusate. Potential applications and methodological improvements for this model are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Blood brain barrier ; cerebral blood flow ; intracranial pressure ; arachidonic acid ; brain oedema ; evoked potential
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Arachidonic acid solution (2 to 15 mg/ml) was infused into the right forebrain white matter of anaesthetised cats over three hours to evaluate its contribution to the genesis and pathophysiology of vasogenic brain oedema. The 0.6 ml infusion increased local white matter water content by a mean of 11.3 ml/100 g tissue but did not increase cortical water content. Histological studies revealed local expansion and trabeculation of the white matter with aggregations of granulocytic neutrophils in the venules and perivenular brain. The adjacent cortical cytoarchitecture was normal. The white matter around the infusion site was stained lightly and over a variable area (15–20 mm2) by intravenously administered Evans Blue dye 2%. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) adjacent to the frontal infusion did not change significantly during the period of infusion and remained similar to rCBF in the contralateral hemisphere. Following the arachidonic acid infusion regional CBF CO2 reactivity was normal and three was no asymmetry of either cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) or motor evoked potential (MEP) waveforms. The increase in brain water content and changes in the ICP and ICP related biodynamics (pressure-volume index, lumped craniospinal compliance and CSF outflow resistance) were similar to those seen following infusion of 0.6 ml saline. These studies suggest that free intraparenchymal arachidonic acid, at concentrations exceeding those occurring in most neuropathological conditions, can increase the normal brain parenchymal capillary permeability but does not disrupt focal cerebrovascular and electrophysiological function. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Brain edema ; blood brain barrier ; serum protein ; evoked potential ; glioma ; cerebral blood flow ; permeability factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The feline infusion model of brain edema was used to evaluate the pathophysiological effects of 0.6ml infusions of autologous serum protein (66%), human serum protein (66%), human glioma cyst fluid and a tissue culture medium (TCM) on the structure and function of the forebrain white matter. These infusions increased local white matter water content by between 10.8 and 12.5 ml/100 g brain and were associated with moderate increases in ICP and CSF outflow resistance and a significant decrease in lumped craniospinal compliance. Cortical somatosensory potentials, motor evoked potentials, EEG and local cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at normocapnia were generally unchanged by the various infusions. All infusates except the 66% autologous serum protein infusion impaired rCBF CO2 reactivity. Histologically all infusates caused marked extracellular edema. The autologous serum protein infusion caused no additional histological changes whereas the glioma cyst infusates caused profound endothelial and astrocytic swelling, focal endothelial necrosis, basement membrane disruption, perivascular microglial reaction and pavementation and perivascular migration of polymor-phonuclear leukocytes. Similar but less marked changes were seen after infusion of human serum protein whilst the TCM produced only minimal changes. The intensity and extent of Evans Blue extravasation into the forebrain white matter was greatest with glioma cyst infusates and with all infusions reflected the extent to microvascular changes. These studies show that products derived from gliomas cause additional damage to the blood-brain-barrier than that caused by non-autologous serum proteins. These results add further support for the existence of glioma derived permeability factors (GDPF), but suggest neither serum proteins nor glioma derived compounds in the white matter interstitium significantly influence local electrophysiological function. Some limitations of the infusion edema model when using non-autologous infusions and difficulties quantitating brain dysfunction are emphasised.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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