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  • 1
    ISSN: 1619-1560
    Keywords: QT interval ; QTc interval ; non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; diabetic neuropathy ; autonomic function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract QTc intervals were measured using an electrocardiogram and other autonomic function tests, in 66 neuropathy patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (59.0±12.5 years; mean ± SD). The change in R-R interval did not influence the QTc interval, as calculated by the equation: QTc =QT+(1000-R-R)/7 (ms), compared with the conventional Bazett's equation which appeared to overcompensate in the case of a small R-R interval. The QTc interval in the diabetic patients was significantly longer than that in age-matched controls. The QTc interval showed an inverse correlation with the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval and skin blood flow at rest. However, no correlation was found between QTc interval and blood pressure change, change in heart rate on standing, or results of the sympathetic skin response. The QTc interval did not correlate significantly with motor or sensory nerve conduction parameters. We conclude that the QTc interval can be a simple and useful autonomic indicator for diabetic neuropathy relatively independent of other abnormalities of autonomic and somatic nervous system function. Clin Auton Res 8:139–143
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sliding movement ; 22S dynein ; Tetrahymena cilia ; dynein-track ; singlet microtubule ; ATP ; polarity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena axonemal dyneins have previously been found to bind to porcine brain microtubules to produce a microtubule-dynein complex. At appropriate microtubule:dynein concentration, microtubules in the complex became covered to saturation by dynein arms of the same polarity and at a spacing of 24 nm [Haimo et al., 1979; Haimo and Fenton, 1988; Haimo, 1989; Porter and Johnson, 1983a].In the present study, two different types of microtubule-dynein complexes (α-and β-complexes) were prepared from Tetrahymena ciliary 22S dynein and porcine brain tubulin. The characteristics of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced extrusion of microtubules from these complexes were analyzed, as a simple and direct in vitro assay for the ATP-induced extrusion of single microtubules. The α-complex prepared by adding dynein to microtubules showed an interrupted sliding movement, which would stop and start several times following the addition of ATP. In the β-complex, prepared by adding dynein bound to DEAE-tubulin to pre-assembled microtubules, microtubules became covered with dynein molecules whose orientation and binding were uniform with respect to microtubule polarity. The microtubules in the β-complex extruded at 12 μm/second following the addition of ATP. Dark-field and electron microscopy indicated that the extruded microtubules had undergone sliding on a dynein-track that had become detached from the complexes and had been absorbed onto the surface of the glass slide. At higher light intensity under a dark-field microscope, the dynein-track was seen to be composed of rows of dynein molecules arranged densely. The orientation of dynein molecules in rows appeared to be uniform considering the images of bound dynein in the β-complex under electron microscope. The higher sliding velocity of the microtubules on these dynein-tracks compared to that seen on slides coated at random with dynein [Vale and Toyoshima, 1988, 1989], may be due to more efficient force generation by this dense arrangement of dynein molecules with the same polarity on the tracks. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: rotation ; twisting ; microtubule-dynein complex ; 22S dynein ; dynein-track ; ATP ; sliding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Applying a new in vitro motility assay system for microtubules and 22S dynein, we recently reported on an ATP-induced extrusion of microtubules from microtubule-dynein α- and β-complexes [Mimori and Miki-Noumura, 1994:Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 27:180-191]. In the present study, we prepared a γ-complex by copolymerizing porcine brain tubulin and Tetrahymena ciliary 22S dynein, and examined the ATP-induced microtubule movement from the γ-complex. The extrusion process appeared quite similar to that of the β-complex. The sliding velocity was 18.39 ± 2.20 m̈m/sec, which was a value comparable to that of trypsin-digested flagellar axonemes [Yano and Miki-Noumura, 1980:J. Cell Sci. 44:169-186]. Higher velocity may be due to a densely arranged dynein-track with the same polarity, which was detached from the γ-complex and absorbed in rows on a glass surface of the slide. Sometimes a free-floating microtubule in the perfusion chamber was observed riding and sliding on the dynein-track remaining on the slide after extrusion.Unexpectedly, we found that when the front part of the microtubule was fixed to a glass surface, a continuous sliding microtubule at the rear part on the dyneintrack often transformed into a left-handed helix, and subsequently a twisted helix with several turns. The helix formation may be due to some rigidity in the microtubule and a right-handed torque component in the sliding force of 22S dynein. The addition of ATP may release some distortion accumulated in the complex structure during copolymerization of tubulin and 22S dynein, inducing reverse rotation of the microtubule. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Progressive supranuclear palsy ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Diffusion-weighted imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI in the cerebral white matter of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and age-matched normal subjects. In PSP, ADC in the prefrontal and precentral white matter was significantly higher than in controls. There was no significant difference in signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The ADC did correlate with signal intensity. The distribution of the elevation of ADC may be the consequence of underlying pathological changes, such as neurofibrillary tangles or glial fibrillary tangles in the cortex. Our findings suggest that ADC measurement might be useful for demonstrating subtle neuropathological changes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Mitochondrial cytopathy ; Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical features of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) resemble those of cerebral infarcts, but the pathogenesis of infarct-like lesions is not fully understood. To characterise these infarct-like lesions, we studied two patients with MELAS using diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI before and after stroke-like episodes and measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the new infarct-like lesions. These gave high signal on DWI and had much higher ADC than normal-appearing regions. The ADC remained high even 30 days after a stroke-like episode then decreased in lesions, with or without abnormality as shown by conventional MRI. We speculate that early elevation of ADC in the acute or subacute phase reflects vasogenic rather than cytotoxic edema. The ADC of the lesions, which disappeared almost completely with clinical improvement, returned to normal levels, which may reflect tissue recovery without severe damage. To our knowledge, this is the first study of DWI in MELAS.
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