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  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; PREVALENCE ; COMPLICATIONS ; MORBIDITY ; EUROPEANS ; ENGLAND ; US POPULATION ; ASIANS
    Abstract: This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008-2009), year 2 (2009-2010) and year 3 (2010-2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5 years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19-64 years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged 〉/=65 years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1-6.9 mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged 〉/=65 years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (〉/=7 mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations 〉/=6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged 〉/=65 years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24052516
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Child 28 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2214
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Objective To determine whether a relationship exists between children’s anxiety level and nightmare occurrence.Method A total of 60 kindergarten, second and fourth grade school children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing nightmare occurrence and anxiety.Results According to parental report, children who experience nightmares have significantly higher levels of anxiety than children who do not experience nightmares. The results also indicate a relationship between nightmare distress and trait anxiety.Conclusion These findings suggest that anxiety issues should be considered in children who are experiencing nightmares.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Diphtheria toxin (DT) forms transmembrane, voltage-dependent channels in a planar lipid bilayer. Channels with similar characteristics were obtained with CB1, a cyanogen bromide peptide of diphtheria toxin B fragment (DTB) (res 340–459). Tryptophan 398 is in interaction with the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Using the Eisenberg method in association with the Shiffer-Edmunson wheel representation, we have identified two amphipathic α-helices within CB1 (res 346–364 and 389–406) that could be involved in the interaction with lipids. Bearing this information in mind, we are providing a model for the structure of the CB1 channel.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Diphtheria toxin ; Site-directed mutagenesis ; Planar lipid bilayers ; Ion channels ; T-domain ; Channel-forming peptides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Diphtheria Toxin (DT) is a 535 amino acid exotoxin, whose active form consists of two polypeptide chains linked by an interchain disulphide bond. DT's N-terminal A fragment kills cells by enzymatically inactivating their protein synthetic machinery; its C terminal B chain is required for the binding of toxin to sensitive cells and for the translocation of the A fragment into the cytosol. This B fragment, consisting of its N-terminal T domain (amino acids 191–386) and its C-terminal R domain (amino acids 387–535) is responsible for the ion-conducting channels formed by DT in lipid bilayers and cellular plasma membranes. To further delineate the channel-forming region of DT, we studied channels formed by deletion mutants of DT in lipid bilayer membranes under several pH conditions. Channels formed by mutants containing only the T domain (i.e., lacking the A fragment and/or the R domain), as well as those formed by mutants replacing the R domain with Interleukin-2 (Il–2), have single channel conductances and selectivities essentially identical to those of channels formed by wild-type DT. Furthermore, deleting the N-terminal 118 amino acids of the T domain also has minimal effect on the single channel conductance and selectivity of the mutant channels. Together, these data identify a 61 amino acid stretch of the T domain, corresponding to the region which includes α-helices TH8 and TH9 in the crystal structure of DT, as the channel-forming region of the toxin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Diphtheria toxin ; Site-directed mutagenesis ; Planar lipid bilayers ; Single channel conductance ; Ion selectivity ; pH dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The conductance of channels formed by diphtheria toxin (DT) in lipid bilayer membranes depends strongly on pH. We have previously shown that a 61 amino acid region of the protein, denoted TH8-9, is sufficient to form channels having the same pH-dependent conductance properties as those of whole toxin channels. One residue in this region, Aspartate 352, is responsible for all the dependence of single channel conductance on trans pH, whereas another, Glutamate 349, has no effect. Here, we report that of the seven remaining charged residues in the TH8-9 region, mutations altering the charge on H322, H323, H372, and R377 have minimal effects on single channel conductance; mutations of Glutamates 326, 327, or 362, however, significantly affect single channel conductance as well as its dependence on cis pH. Moreover, Glutamate 362 is titratable from both the cis and trans sides of the membrane, suggesting that this residue lies within the channel; it is more accessible, however, to cis than to trans protons. These results are consistent with the membrane-spanning topology previously proposed for the TH8-9 region, and suggest a geometric model for the DT channel.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: Diphtheria toxin ; Site-directed mutagenesis ; Planar lipid bilayers ; Single channel conductance ; Ion selectivity ; pH dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ion-conducting channels formed in lipid bilayers by diphtheria toxin are highly pH dependent. Among other properties, the channel's single channel conductance and selectivity depend on proton concentrations on either side of the membrane. We have previously shown that a 61 amino acid fragment of DT is sufficient to form a channel having the same pH-dependent single channel properties as that of the intact toxin. This region corresponds to an a-helical hairpin in the recently published crystal structure of DT in solution; the hairpin contains two α-helices, each long enough to span a membrane, connected by a loop of about nine residues. This paper reports on the single channel effects of mutations which alter the two negatively charged residues in this loop. Changing Glutamate 349 to neutral glutamine or to positive lysine has no effect on the DT channel's single channel conductance or selectivity. In contrast, mutations of Aspartate 352 to neutral asparagine (DT-D352N) or positive lysine (DT-D352K) cause progressive reductions in single channel conductance at pH 5.3 cis/7.2 trans (in 1 m KCl), consistent with this group interacting electrostatically with ions in the channel. The cation selectivity of these mutant channels is also reduced from that of wild-type channels, a direction consistent with residue 352 influencing permeant ions via electrostatic forces. When both sides of the membrane are at pH 4, the conductance difference between wild-type and DT-D352N channels is minimal, suggesting that Asp 352 (in the wild type) is neutral at this pH. Differences observed between wild-type and DT-D352N channels at pH 4.0 cis/7.2 trans (with a high concentration of permeant buffer in the cis compartment) imply that residue 352 is on or near the trans side of the membrane. Comparing the conductances of wild-type and DT-D352K channels at large (cis) positive voltages supports this conclusion. The trans location of position 352 severely constrains the number of possible membrane topologies for this region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: Background Healthy Start (HS) is a UK government programme, introduced in 2006, providing vouchers to pregnant women or families with children aged 〈4 who are in receipt of certain benefits. Vouchers can be exchanged for fruit and vegetables (F&V), milk or infant formula. We sought to identify any association between HS and F&V intake. Methods We analysed repeated cross-sectional data from the Health Survey for England. Study participants were classified into one of four groups: one HS-eligible group and three control groups, meeting only the income or demographic or no eligibility criterion. Outcome measures were mean F&V intake and the proportions of participants consuming ≥3 and ≥1 portion/day. Outcomes were compared across the four groups over four time periods: 2001–2003, 2004–2006, 2007–2009 and 2010–2014. Regression analyses examined whether F&V intake among HS-eligible participants had a significantly different rate of change from those in the control groups. Results The change in mean F&V consumption over time was similar in HS-eligible adults and children to that of the control groups. Likewise, the change in odds of consuming ≥3 or ≥1 portion of F&V/day over time was similar among HS-eligible participants and control groups. Conclusion This study found that during the period 2001–2003 to 2010–2014, F&V consumption among adults and children in households deemed eligible for HS changed similarly to that of other adults and children. Potential explanations include that vouchers may have been spent on milk or infant formula, or that vouchers helped protect F&V consumption in low-income households.
    Keywords: Health policy
    Print ISSN: 0143-005X
    Electronic ISSN: 1470-2738
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing Group
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-02
    Description: Background Hearing loss impacts on cognitive, social and physical functioning. Both hearing loss and hearing aid use vary across population subgroups. We examined whether hearing loss, and reported current hearing aid use among persons with hearing loss, were associated with different markers of socioeconomic status (SES) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods Hearing was measured using an audiometric screening device in the Health Survey for England 2014 (3292 participants aged 45 years and over). Hearing loss was defined as 〉35 dB HL at 3.0 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Using sex-specific logistic regression modelling, we evaluated the associations between SES and hearing after adjustment for potential confounders. Results 26% of men and 20% of women aged 45 years and over had hearing loss. Hearing loss was higher among men in the lowest SES groups. For example, the multivariable-adjusted odds of hearing loss were almost two times as high for those in the lowest versus the highest income tertile (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.74). Among those with hearing loss, 30% of men and 27% of women were currently using a hearing aid. Compared with men in the highest income tertile, the multivariable-adjusted odds of using a hearing aid nowadays were lower for men in the middle (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.99) and the lowest (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.97) income tertiles. Associations between SES and hearing were weaker or null among women. Conclusions While the burden of hearing loss fell highest among men in the lowest SES groups, current hearing aid use was demonstrably lower. Initiatives to detect hearing loss early and increase the uptake and the use of hearing aids may provide substantial public health benefits and reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health.
    Keywords: Open access, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Epidemiology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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