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  • 1
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Consider the construction of an expert system by encoding the knowledge of different experts. Suppose the knowledge provided by each expert is encoded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge of these different experts is an important and nontrivial problem. We study this problem here when the expert systems are considered to be first-order theories. We present techniques for resolving inconsistencies in such knowledge bases. We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148 , USA : Blackwell Publishing
    Computational intelligence 19 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-8640
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Computer Science
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7640
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract In this paper a system termed the Maryland refutation proof procedure system (MRPPS) is described. MRPPS is an interactive system which gives the user the ability to create and maintain a core-bound data base and to input queries either as well-formed formulas in the first-order predicate calculus or as clauses. MRPPS consists of three basic components: (1) a set of inference rules for making logical deductions, many of which are based on the resolution principle; (2) a search strategy for heuristically determining the sequence in which to select base clauses and to perform deductions on clauses already generated; and (3) a base clause selection strategy that uses heuristic and semantic information for determining which data axioms and general axioms are to be brought to bear on the problem. These three components are described and MRPPS is compared to related work.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7640
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Two representations of the language recognition problem for a theorem prover in first-order logic are presented and contrasted. One of the representations is based on the familiar method of generating sentential forms of the language, and the other is based on the Cocke parsing algorithm. An augmented theorem prover is described which permits recognition of recursive languages. The state-transformation method developed by Cordell Green to construct problem solutions in resolution-based systems can be used to obtain the parse tree. In particular, the end-order traversal of the parse tree is derived in one of the representations. The paper defines an inference system, termed the cycle inference system, which makes it possible for the theorem prover to model the method on which the representation is based. The general applicability of the cycle inference system to state-space problems is discussed. Given an unsatisfiable setS, where each clause has at most one positive literal, it is shown that there exists an input proof. The clauses for the two representations satisfy these conditions, as do many state-space problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7675
    Keywords: deductive database ; logic programming ; cooperative answering ; database interface
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Responses to queries posed by a user of a database do not always contain the information desired. Database answers to a query, although they may be logically correct, can sometimes be misleading. Research in the area of cooperative answering for databases and deductive databases seeks to rectify these problems. We introduce a cooperative method calledrelaxation for expanding deductive database and logic programming queries. The relaxation method expands the scope of a query by relaxing the constraints implicit in the query. This allows the database to return answers related to the original query as well as the literal answers themselves. These additional answers may be of interest to the user. In section 1 we introduce the problem and method. In Section 2 we give some background on the research done in cooperative answering. Section 3 discusses the relaxation method, a potential control strategy, and uses. Section 4 looks at a semantic counterpart to this notion. In Section 5 we explore some of the control and efficiency issues. We enumerate open issues in Section 6, and conclude in Section 7.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7675
    Keywords: combining databases ; databases ; prioritized data
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract To solve a problem one may need to combine the knowledge of several different experts. It can happen that some of the claims of one or more experts may be in conflict with the claims of other experts. There may be several such points of conflict and any claim may be involved in several different such points of conflict. In that case, the user of the knowledge of experts may prefer a certain claim to another in one conflict-point without necessarily preferring that statement in another conflict-point. Our work constructs a framework within which the consequences of a set of such preferences (expressed as priorities among sets of statements) can be computed. We give four types of semantics for priorities, three of which are shown to be equivalent to one another. The fourth type of semantics for priorities is shown to be more cautious than the other three. In terms of these semantics for priorities, we give a function for combining knowledge from different sources such that the combined knowledge is conflict-free and satisfies all the priorities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7640
    Keywords: Set optimization ; depth-first search ; simple relational expressions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract A branch- and-bound type algorithm is developed to optimize the evaluation of a set of expressions. The algorithm proceeds in a depth-first manner and achieves an optimal solution. The algorithm is applied to optimize the evaluation of sets of relational expressions. Analogies to the heuristic information associated with theA* algorithm are investigated. Examples are presented illustrating the use of the algorithm. Pragmatics associated with the algorithm and its application to Boolean optimization are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7640
    Keywords: Answer extraction ; Luckham-Nilsson algorithm ; proof graphs ; reason extraction ; resolution ; theorem proving
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm for answer extraction in resolution-based systems is presented. The algorithm, an extension of the Luckham-Nilsson algorithm, accomplishes the answer extraction in a single traversal of the proof graph without requiring the appending of tautologies to clauses from the negation of the theorem. It enables realization of a significant savings in time and space resources. In addition, an extension to the algorithm is described by which some types of multiple answers to Wh and counting type questions can be obtained.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7675
    Keywords: cooperative answering ; query/answer systems ; deductive databases ; human/machine interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Databases and information systems are often hard to use because they do not explicitly attempt to cooperate with their users. Direct answers to database and knowledge base queries may not always be the best answers. Instead, an answer with extra or alternative information may be more useful and less misleading to a user. This paper surveys foundational work that has been done toward endowing intelligent information systems with the ability to exhibit cooperative behavior. Grice's maxims of cooperative conversation, which provided a starting point for the field of cooperative answering, are presented along with relevant work in natural language dialogue systems, database query answering systems, and logic programming and deductive databases. The paper gives a detailed account of cooperative techniques that have been developed for considering users' beliefs and expectations, presuppositions, and misconceptions. Also, work in intensional answering and generalizing queries and answers is covered. Finally, the Cooperative Answering System at Maryland, which is intended to be a general, portable platform for supporting a wide spectrum of cooperative answering techniques, is described.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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