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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-702X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Experiments were done to clarify the mechanisms associated with releasability of histamine. First, washed leukocytes from 23 asthmatic patients sensitive to mite allergen were challenged with Der p 1, a major allergen isolated from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, or anti-IgE. A significant correlation was observed between the ratio of Der p 1-specific IgE liter to total IgE level (S/T) in the patient's plasma and either the reactivity (maximal percentage of histamine release; rs= 0.514, P= 0.016, n= 23) or the sensitivity (the minimum allergen concentration required to achieve 25% histamine release; rs= -0.790, P= 0.0002) to Der p 1. Additionally, the reactivity to Der p 1 was significantly correlated with that to anti-IgE (rs= 0.690, P= 0.0012), indicating that an intrinsic cellular property may be one of the contributing factors in immunologic histamine release. In a second series of experiments, sinus mast cells were passively sensitized with immunoglobulins prepared from the patient's plasma. A statistically significant correlation was found between either the reactivity or the sensitivity to Der p 1 and S/T, thus indicating that S/T is an indicator of the releasability of histamine. When basophils or mast cells were passively sensitized with mouse IgE and subsequently stimulated with antimouse IgE, the reactivity to antihuman IgE was significantly correlated with that to antimouse IgE (rs= 0.966, P= 0.0023, n= 11). These observations suggest that an intrinsic cellular property regulates reactivity in immunologic histamine release. Taken together, our results suggest that an intrinsic cellular property, as well as specific IgE antibody levels on the cell surface, is an important factor in determining histamine release in response to IgE-dependent activation.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 49 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Two cases of atopic asthma caused by acid protease produced by Candida albicans are reported. Both patients had high levels of serum IgE antibodies against the acid protease and showed positive conjunctival and immediate bronchial responses when challenged with the protease. Significant histamine release was detected in both patients when their peripheral leukocytes were challenged with the protease antigen. These findings clearly showed that C. albicans acid protease is the causative allergen of atopic asthma.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 53 (1998), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Very little is known about the mechanistns underlying adverse reactions to radiocontrast medium. On the basis of the clinical features of the adverse reactions, il has generally been considered that an IgE-dependent mechanism is not involved in these adverse reactions, and only a few studies have demonstrated the presence of IgE antibody to radiocontrast medium iti patient sera. Methods We assayed for IgE antibody to ioxaglie acid (Hexabrix®), a representative radiocontrast medium, in the sera of patients who had developed adverse reactions to ioxaglie acid. A conjugate was prepared by coupling succinyl ioxaglie acid to human serum albumin. Enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay for the detection of IgE antibody to ioxaglie acid in patient sera were constructed by physical adsorption or by eovalent eoupling of the conjugate on solid supports. Results When the radioactivity or the absorbance exceeding the mean plus 3 SD for normal healthy subjects was regarded as positive, IgE antibody was detected in the sera of 47.1% of the patients who had a past history of adverse reactions to ioxaglie acid and 16.2% of those who had experienced adverse reactions to ioxaglie acid within 24 h before the blood collection, although the IgE antibody levels were low. On the other hand, IgE antibody to ioxaglie acid was not detected in the sera of patients with no history of adverse reaetions to ioxaglie acid. Inhibition experiments revealed the presenee of IgE antibody speeific to ioxaglie acid in the serum defined as positive for IgE antibody to ioxaglie acid. The presenee of IgE antibody to ioxaghe acid did not always eorrelate with the activation of mast eells due t o the occurrence of adverse reaelions to ioxaglie acid. Conclusions A small amount of IgE antibody to ioxaglie acid was detected n i the sera of some patients with a history of adverse reactions to ioxaglie acid, and these adverse reactions may be partly explained by the presence of IgE antibody in the serum of at least some patients.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Aspirin challenge of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) patients causes a significant increase in leukotriene E4 (LTE4) concentration in urine. However, knowledge on leukotriene B4 (LTB4) generation in patients with AIA is insufficient. Recent research has demonstrated that exogenously administered LTB4 is excreted as glucuronide into the urine in human healthy subjects.Objective The purpose of this study is to estimate urinary LTB4 glucuronide (LTBG) concentration in the clinically stable condition in healthy subjects and asthmatic patients and to investigate changes in urinary LTBG concentration in patients with AIA after aspirin challenge.Methods A provocation test was performed by intravenous aspirin challenge. After urine was hydrolysed by β-glucuronidase, the fraction containing LTB4 was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and LTB4 concentration was quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Urinary LTBG concentration was calculated as the difference between the concentration obtained with hydrolysis and that without hydrolysis.Results (1) After hydrolysis, the presence of urinary LTB4 was verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. (2) The urinary LTBG concentration was significantly higher in the asthmatic patients than in the healthy subjects (median, 5.37 pg/mg creatinine [range 1.2–13] vs. 3.32 pg/mg creatinine [range, 0.14–10.5], P=0.0159). (3) The patients with AIA (n=7), but not those with aspirin-tolerant asthma (n=6), showed significant increases in LTBG and LTE4 excretions after aspirin challenge. (4) When the concentrations after aspirin challenge were analysed simultaneously, a significant linear correlation was observed between urinary LTBG concentration and urinary LTE4 concentration in patients with AIA (Spearman's rank correlation test, r=0.817, P=0.0003).Conclusion LTBG is present in human urine, albeit at a concentration lower than urinary LTE4. In addition to a marked increase in cysteinyl-leukotriene production, aspirin challenge induced LTB4 production in AIA patients.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have previously reported the cases of Candida albicans (C. alb) acid protease (CAAP)-induced atopic asthma. In this study, the allergenicity of the released enzyme CAAP was examined among asthmatic patients with positive immediate skin response to crude C. alb antigen. Among 49 patients with positive skin response to crude C. alb, anti-crude C. alb IgE antibodies were detected in 40 and anti-CAAP IgE antibodies were detected in 18. Moreover, anticrude C. alb IgE antibodies were detected in all of the patients in whom anti-CAAP IgE antibodies were detected. No correlations between IgG antibodies to both antigens or between IgE and IgG antibodies to CAAP were observed. CAAP induced significant T-cell proliferation in 20/28 patients showing positive T-cell proliferation response to crude C. alb antigen. Most of the patients showing positive conjunctival response to crude C. alb antigen also showed positive response to CAAP. Most of the patients showing high levels of serum IgE antibody and positive histamine-release response of peripheral blood leukocytes to CAAP showed positive conjunctival response. The results indicate that CAAP is an important allergen in C. alb-related mucosal allergy.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The objective of this study was to define the participation of cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs) or thromboxane A2 in the pathogenesis of aspirin-sensitive asthma (ASA). Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11DTXB2) values in spot urine were measured in 22 asthmatics with a history of aspirin sensitivity and in 17 without such a history of aspirin-sensitive asthma [NASA]) in the outpatient clinic. The urinary LTE4 value was significantly higher in ASA patients than in NASA (340±47 vs 65±15 pg/mg·cr, P<0.001), but there was no significant difference in urinary 11DTXB2 between the two groups (891±77 vs 657±90 pg/mg·cr). A high value of LTE4 was not associated with type of asthma, severity of disease, oral prednisolone treatment, sex, or age. A higher value of 11DTXB2 was observed in the atopic type than the nonatopic type in ASA (1086±111 vs 697±147 pg/mg·cr, P<0.05). No correlation was observed between urinary LTE4 and 11DTXB2 in either ASA or NASA. In conclusion, LTs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ASA, and TXA2 in the pathogenesis of the atopic type in ASA.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A new set of allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae (provisionally named DPS and DF5, respectively) was isolated from the whole culture of mites. The apparent molecular weights of both allergens were shown to be 25000 on SDS-PAGE under a reducing condition and 27000 on Sephadex G-75 gel nitration chromatography. Both DP5 and DF5, as well as Der f III, possessed proteolytic activity. The results of substrate specificity and susceptibility to various protease inhibitors of DP5 and DF5 strongly suggested that they belonged to the chymotrypsin-like serine protease family. In sera from 88 mite-allergic patients, specific IgE antibodies to DP5 and/or DF5 were detected in only 41% of the sera by radio-allergosorbent test, while 90% and 93% had specific IgE antibodies to Der p I and/or Der f I and Der p II and/or Der f II, respecti vely.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background Although many studies have assumed that the overproduction of cysteinyl- leukotrienes (cys-LTs) and an imbalance of arachidonic acid metabolism may be plausible causes for the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA), there has been little experimental evidence to substantiate this notion in lower airways of patients with AIA.Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the eicosanoid concentrations in sputum and urine from patients with AIA.Methods The concentrations of sputum cys-LTs, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGF2α, PGD2 and thromboxane B2 were measured to assess local concentrations of eicosanoids in patients with AIA and in those with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA). The concentrations of two urinary metabolites, leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 9α11βPGF2, were also measured to corroborate the relationship between the eicosanoid biosynthesis in the whole body and that in lower airways.Results The concentration of PGD2 in sputum was significantly higher in patients with AIA than in those with ATA (median, 5.3 pg/mL vs. 3.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the concentration of the corresponding metabolite, 9α11βPGF2, between the two groups. No differences were noted in the concentrations of other prostanoids in sputum between the two groups. The sputum cys-LT concentrations showed no differences between the two groups, in spite of the observation that the concentration of urinary LTE4 was significantly higher in patients with AIA than in those with ATA (median, 195.2 pg/mg-cre vs. 122.1 pg/mg-cre, P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation among the concentration of cys-LTs, the number of eosinophils and the concentration of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in sputum.Conclusion The urinary concentration of LTE4 does not necessary reflect cys-LT biosynthesis in lower airways. A significantly higher concentration of PGD2 in sputum from patients with AIA suggests the possible ongoing mast cell activation in lower airways.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Chromatography A 175 (1979), S. 339-342 
    ISSN: 0021-9673
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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