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  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Somitogenesis ; neurulation ; alpha-actinin ; morphogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A discrete stage in two different morphogenetic processes has been examined employing fluorescently labelled alpha-actinin as a probe to localize native alpha-actinin and antibodies to localize fibronectin and collagen type I. The stage of somitogenesis examined is the transition from the compact mesenchymal somitic mass to the epithelial somitic vesicle (ie, epithelialization of the somite). The stage of neurulation examined is the transition from the relatively flat neuroepithelium to the approximation of the neural folds. Before these morphogenetic movements begin, the neuroepithelium is sitting upon a basal lamina and interstitial collagen, and the somite is surrounded by a meshwork of interstitial collagen. During both of these processes, the cells become narrowed at their apices in the region of the tissue that is becoming concave, and alpha-actinin is localized in the apices. The localization of intracellular alpha-actinin and extracellular fibronectin, and the distribution of collagen, suggest that there is a coordinated appearance and distribution of these molecules that is temporally associated with these discrete morphogenetic events.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; actin ; alpha-actin ; vinuclin ; microtubules ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Flurescently labeled heavy mermoyosin, alpha-actinin, and vinculin were used to localize actin, and vinculin, respectively, in permeabilized and living cells during the process of stress fiber reassembly, which occurred when cells were removed from ATP-depleting medium (20 mM sodium azide and 10 mM 2-deoxyglucose). In 80% of the cells recovering from ATP depletion, small, scattered plaques containing actin, alpha-actinin, and vinculin were replaced by long, thin, periodic fibers within 5 minutes of removal of the inhibitors. These nascent stress fibers grew broader as recovery progressed, until they attained the thickness of stress fibers in control cells. In the other 20% of the cells, the scattered plaques aggregated within 5 minutes of reversal, and almost all the actin, alpha-actinin, and vinculin in the cell became localized in one perinuclear aggregate, with a diameter of approximaterly 15-25 μm. As recovery progressed, all aggregates resembled rings, with diameters that increased at about 0.5 μm/minute and grew to as large as 70 μm in some giant cells. As the size of the rings increased, fibers radiated outward from them and sometimes spanned the diamater of te rings. The shape of the cells did not change during this time. By 1 hour after reversal, the rings were no longer present and all cells had networks of stress fibers. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques used to localize tubulin and vimentin indicated that microtubules and intermediate filaments were not constituents of the rings, and the rings were not closely apposed to the substrate, judging from reflection contrast optics. The rapid rearrangement of attachment plaques into a perinuclear aggregate that spreads radially in the cytoplasm occurs at the same speed as fibroblast and chromosomal movement, but is unlike other types of intracytoplasmic motility.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sarcoplasmic reticulum ; mitochondira ; mitotic spindle ; cytoskeleton ; cytokinesis ; fluorescent membrane dyes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic changes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in interphase and mitotic cells was detected by the vital fluorescent dye 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. Two types of arrays characterize the continuous ER system in the non-muscle PtK2 cell: (1) a lacy network of irregular polygons and (2) long strands of ER that are found aligned along stress fibers. In cross-striated myotubes there was a periodic localization of fluorescence over each I-band corresponding to the positions of the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In contrast to the arrangement in muscle cells, the aligment of the long strands of ER along stress fibers showed no strict periodicity that could be correlated with the sarcomeric units of the stress fibers. The ER and SR arrays seen in living cells were also detected in fixed cells stained with antibodies directed against proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and sarcoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Observations of vitally stained PtK2 cells at 1 to 2 minute intervals using low light level video cameras and image processing techniques enabled us to see the polygonal ER units form and undergo changes in their shapes. During cell division, the ER, rhodamine 123-stained mitochondria, and phagocytosed fluorescent beads were excluded from the mitotic spindle while soluble proteins were not. No obvious concentration or alignment of membranes could be found associated with the contractile proteins in the cleavage furrow. After completion of cell division there was a redeployment of the ER network in each daughter cell.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cleavage furrows ; cytokinesis ; actin ; phalloidin ; myosin ; filamin ; talin ; attachment plaques ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: PtK2 cells of exceptionally large size were microinjected with fluorescently labeled probes for actin, myosin, filamin, and talin in order to follow the assembly of the contractile proteins into the cleavage furrows. Whereas in cells of normal size, there is usually a diffuse pattern of localization of proteins in the cleavage furrow, in these large, flat cells the labeled proteins localized in fibers in the cleavage furrow. Often, the fibers were striated in a pattern comparable to that measured in the stress fibers of the same cell type. The presence of talin in discrete plaques along fibers in the cleavage furrows of the large cells suggests a further similarity between cleavage furrow and stress fiber structure. The presence of filamin in the cleavage furrows also suggests the possibility of an overlapping mechanism in addition to that of a talin mediated mechanism for the attachment of actin filaments to the cell surfaces in the cleavage furrow. A model is presented that emphasizes the interrelationships between stress fibers, myofibrils, and cleavage furrows. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes ; actin ; profilin ; DNase I ; vitamin D-binding protein ; phalloidin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Infection of host cells by Listeria monocytogenes results in the recruitment of cytoplasmic actin into a tail-like appendage that projects from one end of the bacterium. Each filamentous actin tail progressively lengthenes, providing the force which drives the bacterium in a forward direction through the cytoplasm and later results in Listeria cell-to-cell spread. Host cell actin monomers are incorporated into the filamentous actin tail at a discrete site, the bacterial-actin tail interface. We have studied the consequences of microinjecting three different actin monomer-binding proteins on the actin tail assembly and Listeria intracellular movement. Introduction of high concentrations of profilin (estimated injected intracellular concentration 11-22 m̈M) into infected PtK2 cells causes a marked slowing of actin tail elongation and bacterial migration. Lower intracellular concentrations of two other injected higher affinity monomer-sequenstering proteins, Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP; 1-2 m̈M) and DNase I (6-7 m̈M) completely block bacterial-induced actin assembly and bacterial migration. The onset of inhibition by each protein is gradual (10-20 min) indicating that the mechanisms by which these proteins interfere with Listeria-induced actin assembly are likely to be complex. To exclude the possibility that Listeria recruits preformed actin filaments to generate the tails and that these monomer-binding proteins act by depolymerizing such performed actin filaments, living infected cells have been injected with fluorescently labeled phalloidin (3 m̈M). Although the stress fibers are labeled, no fluorescent phalloidin is found in the tails of the moving bacteria. These results demonstrate that Listeria-induced actin assembly in PtK2 cells is the result of assembly of actin monomers into new filaments and that Listeria's ability to recruit polymerization competent monomeric actin is very sensitive to the introduction of exogenous actin monomer-binding proteins. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A mixture of two peptides of approximately Mr 13 000 has been isolated from a papain digest of LC2 deficient myosin. The peptides assemble into highly ordered aggregates which in one view are made up of strands of pairs of dots with an average side to side spacing of 13.0 nm and an average axial repeat of 9.0 nm. In another view there are strands of single dots with a side-to-side spacing of 7.8 nm and an axial repeat of 9.1 nm. From N-terminal peptide sequencing, the two peptides have been shown to come from regions of the myosin rod displaced by 195 residues. We have shown that either peptide alone can assemble to form the same aggregates. The 195 residue displacement of the Mr 13 000 peptides corresponds closely to the 196 residue repeat of charges along the myosin rod. This finding permits us to designate 195 residue segments of the myosin rod and to relate assembly characteristics directly to the similar 195 residue segments and 196 residue charge repeat. The most C-terminal 195 residue segment carries information for assembly into helical strands. The contiguous 195 residue segment, in major part, carries information for the unipolar assembly, characteristic of the assembly in each half of the myosin filament. The next contiguous 195 residue segment, in major part, carries information for bipolar assembly which is characteristic of the bare zone region of the filament; and for the transition from the bipolar bare zone to unipolar assembly. The effect of the eight C-terminal residues of the myosin rod on the assembly of the contiguous 195 residues has also been studied. The entire fragment of 195 + eight C-terminal residues assembled to form helical strands with an axial repeat of 30 nm. Successive deletion of charged residues changed the axial repeat of the helical strands suggesting that the charged residues at the C-terminus are involved in determining the pitch in the helical assembly of the contiguous 195 residues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 405-416 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cardiac muscle ; myofibril ; cell spreading ; Z bands ; alpha-actinin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cardiac myocytes were isolated from 5-6-day-old chick embryos and allowed to spread in culture. The distribution of alpha-actinin in the cells was followed for five days in culture by exposing permeabilized cells to rhodamine-labeled alpha-actinin and also by injecting the labeled alpha-actinin into living myocytes. In addition to labeling the Z bands of sarcomeres, the added alpha-actinin also labeled small particles that were usually arranged periodically in linear arrays with a spacing between particles of 0.3-2.0 μm. Actin was localized between the particles of alpha-actinin by means of fluorescein-labeled heavy meromyosin. The punctate localization of alpha-actinin was prominent in pseudopods, behind ruffles, and at the periphery of spreading cells. Long rows of particles of alpha-actinin were often parallel to one another with the alpha-actinin particles in register. These linear arrays appeared to merge laterally to form strands with broader concentrations of alpha-actinin. Other linear arrays were parallel to myofibrils in the cell and some extended outward from the ends of myofibrils. We conclude that during spreading of cardiac myocytes, myofibrils form at the cell periphery behind the extending margins of the cell, and that the aggregates of alpha-actinin found in these areas are nascent Z bands in the forming myofibrils.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytokinesis ; mitosis ; PtK2 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: α-Actinins, isolated from muscle and nonmuscle sources and labeled with various fluorescent dyes, were microinjected into living PtK2 cells during interphase to observe the reformation of stress fibers following cell division. Fluorescently labeled ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin were also injected as control proteins. α-Actinin was incorporated into stress fibers within 5 minutes after injection and remained present in the fibers for up to 11 days. The pattern of incorporation was the same regardless of whether the α-actinin was isolated from muscle or nonmuscle tissues or whether it was labeled with fluorescein, Lucifer Yellow, or rhodamine dyes. In contrast, neither labeled ovalbumin nor bovine serum albumin were incorporated into stress fibers. When the injected cells entered prophase, all stress fibers disassembled, resulting in a distribution of the fluorescent α-actinin throughout the cytoplasm. During cytokinesis, the fluorescent α-actinin was concentrated in the broad area between the separated chromosomes and along the edge of the cell in the cleavage area. Within 10 minutes after the completion of cleavage, the first fluorescent stress fibers reformed parallel to the spreading edges of the daughter cells and in close association with the midbody with a concomitant loss of α-actinin in the former cleavage furrow. Additional fibers formed adjacent to these first stress fibers. In some cases, new stress fibers formed between two existing stress fibers and some stress fibers moved up to 4 μm apart from one another in the course of 2 hours. Thus, fluorescent α-actinin, injected into living cells, undergoes the same cyclical changes in distribution as endogenous α-actinin during the cell cycle: from stress fibers to cleavage furrow and back to stress fibers.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: alpha-actinin ; cytoskeleton ; muscle cells ; nonmuscle cells ; stress fiber ; myofibril ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study report the first development of a fluorescently labeled filamin. Smooth muscle was labeled with fluorscent dyes in order to study its interaction with stress fibers and myofibrils, both in living cells and in permeabilized cells. The labeled filamin bounds to the Z bands of isolated cross-striated myofibrils and to the Z bands and intercalated discs in both permeabilized embryonic cardiac myocytes and in frozen sections of adult rat venticle. In permeabilized embryonic chick myotubes, filamin bound to early myotubes but was absent at later stages. In living embryonic chick myotubes, the fluorescently labeled filamin was incorporated into the Z bands of myofibirls during early and late stages of develoment but was absent during an intermediate stages. In living cardiac myocytes, filamin-IAR was incorporated into nascent as well as fully formed sarcomeres throughout develoment. In permeabilized nonmuslce cells, labeled filamin bound to attachment plaques and foci of polygonal networks and to the dense bodies in stress fibers. The periodic bands of filamin in stress fibers had a longer spacing in fibroblasts than in epithelial cells. When injected into living cells, filamin was readily incorporated into stress fibers in a striated pattern. The fluorescent filamin bands were broader in injected cells, however, than they were in permeabilized cells. We have interpreted these results from living and permeabilized cells to mean that native filamin is distributed along the full lengh of the actin filaments in the stress fibers, with a higher concentration present in the dense bodies. A sarcomeric model is presented indicating the position of filamin with respect to other proteins in the stress fibers.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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