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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endotoxin shock ; Lung ; Endotoxin-positive cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Following an intravenous administration into rats of a shock-inducing dose of endotoxin (2 mg) the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was demonstrated immunohistochemically (light and electron microscopy) and determined quantitatively (radio-labelled LPS) in the lung tissue and in isolated alveolar macrophages. At different times after LPS injection morphological investigations of the pulmonary tissue and alveolar macrophages were carried out. One hour after endotoxin treatment 3% of the alveolar macrophages were already LPS-positive. The maximum extent of the immunoperoxidase reaction for endotoxin (100% cells involved) was observed on day 3, the vast majority (98%) of the alveolar macrophages being LPS-positive still on day 14. 0.9% of the injected radio-labelled LPS preparation was found to be associated with lung tissue on day 3. By this time 0.173 µg LPS/106 alveolar macrophages was detected. During the time of ultrastructural investigation endotoxin appeared in the lung only within cells. By their high capacity for storing endotoxin and their numerical superiority the mononuclear phagocytes are the leading LPS-positive cells in the lung, although granulocytes, endothelial cells, and alveolar epithelial cells were sometimes also involved. The accumulation of a high percentage of activated macrophages in the lung seen in the late stage of shock could represent at least one of the main factors leading to damage of pulmonary tissue. The correlation between appearance of LPS-positive macrophages and histological signs of lung tissue injury in the present investigation is striking.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Meth A mouse tumour ; Endotoxin ; Haemorrhagic tumour necrosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Endotoxin induced necrosis of the Meth A mouse tumour has been investigated using macroscopic, histological and ultrastructural examination methods. On the 8th day after tumour cell transplantation, the animals received a relatively non-toxic dose of the Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin intravenously. The natural history of the tumour necrosis took the following course: 1. The earliest morphological changes could be seen with the electron microscope 90 min after administration of the endotoxin, and were seen as an interstitial oedema with separation of the tumour cells. 2. Haemmorrhagic necrosis of the tumour was complete 4 hours after injection, and could be easily recognized with the naked eye. 3. Rejection of the necrotic malignant tumour was complete two weeks after LPS administration. Only minor residual scarring of the belly-wall remained. Haemorrhagic tumour necrosis due to endotoxin can be compared with the localized Shwartzman reaction and probably involves tumour necrotizing factor (TNF). For complete destruction of a tumour by haemorrhagic necrosis the size of the tumour is critical. Certain regression after endotoxin administration depends upon additional T-cell-mediated immunity (provided the tumour is immunogenic). In contrast to the haemorrhagic necrosis, BCG-induced tumour regression is accompanied by granulomatous inflammation, which may be responsible for destruction of the tumour.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Acanthosis nigricans maligna ; Growth factors ; Transforming growth factor alpha
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pathogenesis of cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes is still under discussion. Since many of these syndromes, including acanthosis nigricans, are proliferative skin disorders it is believed that products secreted by the tumour stimulate the keratinocytes to proliferate. Growth factors like transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) are known to be highly mitogenic for keratinocytes in vitro. Here we report on a patient with a poorly differentiated gastric cancer and a full clinical picture of acanthosis nigricans characterized by diffuse hyperkeratosis and multiple papillomatous lesions of the skin with involvement of the conjunctivae. In Southern blot analysis of the tumour tissue from this patient amplification of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, the common ligand for TGF-alpha and EGF, was shown. Immunohistochemically, prominent staining was found throughout the tumour using anti-TGF-alpha antibodies. In a series of 25 investigated gastric tumour biopsies, four tumours showed amplification of the EGF receptor and one additional biopsy was positive for TGF-alpha. Since there is no other report describing the link between TGF-alpha and acanthosis nigricans, except that of Ellis et al. 1987, we present a new case suggesting a possible link between growth factors and acanthosis nigricans maligna.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei der Bromcarbamidintoxikation des Menschen ist, ebenso wie bei Kaninchen, der Endothelschaden—charakterisiert durch Endotheldesquamation und Vakuolisierung, gefolgt von interstitiellem Ödem — das prädominierende Merkmal. Die Verbrauchskoagulopathie, die in einigen Fällen von Bromcarbamidintoxikation beim Menschen wie auch in unserem Tiermaterial beobachtet wurde, kann sowohl durch Antikoagulantientherapie mit Heparin als auch durch aggregationshemmende Substanzen, wie beim Kaninchen gezeigt werden konnte, verhindert werden. Diese Befunde lassen den Schluß zu, daß die Verbrauchskoagulopathie ein sekundäres Phänomen im Gefolge des primären Endothelschadens darstellt. Übereinstimmungen der histologischen Befunde des Endothelschadens bei Bromcarbamidintoxikierten Menschen und Tieren und der sog. “Adalin Purpura”, die nach chronischer Einnahme von Bromcarbamiden beim Menschen auftreten kann, werden diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In bromocarbamide intoxication in humans, as in rabbits, the predominant feature is the endothelial damage characterized by desquamation and vacuolisation, followed by interstitial oedema. Consumption coagulopathy, as observed in some cases of human bromocarbamide intoxication and also in our experimental model, can be prevented by anticoagulant therapy with heparin and also, as could be shown in rabbits, with aggregation-inhibiting agents. These findings strongly suggest that consumption coagulopathy is only a secondary phenomenon which develops in the course of primary endothelial damage. Similarities in the histological findings of endothelial damage between bromocarbamide intoxication in humans and in rabbits and the so-called “Adalin purpura”, which can be observed after chronic use of bromocarbamide, are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-8580
    Keywords: Protracted anaphylactic shock ; myocardial cell damage ; adrenaline ; Protrahierter anaphylaktischer Schock ; Herzmuskelzellnekrosen ; Adrenalin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei ovalbuminsensibilisierten, mepyraminvorbehandelten Meerschweinchen wurde durch intravenöse Injektion von Antigen ein protrahierter anaphylaktischer Schock ausgelöst. Bei Tieren, welche im protrahierten Schock verstarben, konnten sowohl diffuse als auch herdförmige Herzmuskelzellnekrosen gefunden werden. Ferner waren perivaskuläre und interstitielle Ödeme nachweisbar. Die Antigeneffekte bei nicht sensibilisierten Tieren konnten durch intravenöse Infusion hoher Dosen von Adrenalin teilweise imitiert werden. Wurde Adrenalin im Verlaufe des protrahierten Schocks infundiert, so nahm das Ausmaß der Herzmuskelzellnekrosen nicht zu. Die histologischen Veränderungen waren eher vermindert, obgleich die Überlebenszeit nicht verlängert sondern verkürzt war. Die Befunde werden im Hinblick auf die Pathogenese des protrahierten anaphylaktischen Schocks diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In ovalbumin-sensitized, mepyramine-treated guinea pigs protracted anaphylactic shock was elicited by i.v. injection of antigen. Diffuse or focal necrosis of myocardial cells was found in animals which died in protracted shock, as well as perivascular and interstitial edema. The antigen effects could be partially imitated by i.v. infusion of high amounts of adrenaline into nonsensitized guinea pigs. When adrenaline was infused during protracted anaphylactic shock, the catecholamine effects did not add to the histological effects of the antigen. Rather, the morphological alterations in the hearts were reduced, whereas the survival times were not increased, but decreased. - The findings are discussed in view of the nature of protracted anaphylactic shock.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Nasopharyngeal fibroma ; Relaps ; 20 years ; Buccal mucous membrane
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a 38 year old patient there was a relapse of a nasopharyngeal fibroma in the buccal mucous membrane which had been operatively removed from the nasopharynx 20 years ago. Both tumors were histologically identical. The patient did not suffer from hormonal disturbances.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Histopathology 21 (1992), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Most renal cell carcinomas are assigned to either the papillary or clear cell, non-papillary type by morphological and cytogenetic criteria. In rare cases, papillary carcinomas of the kidney have been classified as collecting duct carcinoma because of their medullary localization and the associated hyperplastic and dysplastic epithelial lesions of collecting ducts in the vicinity of the tumour. In this first report on the cytogenetics of collecting duct carcinoma, we describe unique and consistent chromosomal aberrations in three cases. Each of the three tumours showed monosomies for chromosomes 1, 6, 14, 15, and 22. This suggests that collecting duct carcinoma is the third type of kidney tumour whose definition is based on morphological as well as on cytogenetic criteria. It appears to be cytogenetically different from the cortical papillary kidney tumour which exhibits trisomy 17 and tri- or tetrasomy 7, and from the non-papillary renal cell carcinoma which characteristically presents deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Shock syndrome ; pathomorphosis ; changes in disease patterns ; therapy of shock ; consumptive coagulopathy ; Schocksyndrom ; Gestaltwandel ; Pathomorphose ; Schocktherapie ; Verbrauchskoagulopathie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Von 1949–1971 hat sich der Ablauf und die Gestalt des Schocksyndroms stark gewandelt. Die Pathomorphose ist bedingt durch Verlängerung der Krankheitsdauer (von 4 auf 11 Tage), Hinzufügung neuer Stadien (1. Periode: Hypovolämie-Volumensubstitution; 2. Periode: Nierenversagen-Dialyse; 3. Periode: respiratorische Insuffizienz-Schocklungen) und positive und negative Folgen der Therapie (Überwässerung, O2-Toxizität). Eine Änderung der ärztlichen Anschauung hat zudem einen scheinbaren Gestaltwandel des Schocksyndroms herbeigeführt. Besonders die Einführung des Konzeptes der Verbrauchskoagulopathie, Erkennung morphologischer Äquivalente des Schocks und eine perfektionierte Kriegsmedizin haben den Blickwinkel verschoben.
    Notes: Summary The shock syndrome has undergone great changes both in aspect and pattern (pathomorphosis) during the last 20 years. Between 1949 and 1971, the survival time of patients has increased from 4 to 11 days. This has produced the appearance of new stages in the shock syndrome: 1st period: hypovolaemia with fluid replenishment; 2nd period: acute renal failure with dialysis; and 3rd period: respiratory insufficiency with respirator therapy. Longer survival produces both positive and negative therapeutical consequences (liquid overload, O2-toxicity). In addition, changes in medical approach toward the shock syndrome have brought about an apparent change in the form of the afflication. Refined clinical methods, the introduction of the concept of consumptive coagulopathy, the knowledge of morphological equivalents of shock and perfect war-time medicine have changed views and judgements.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract For the in vitro study of cell–biomaterial surface interactions, the choice of cell type is crucial. In vivo data indicate that during the healing of the implant in the tissues, the pivotal cell types are the macrophages. These cells, upon interaction with any foreign material, might initiate a spectrum of responses, which could lead to acute and chronic inflammatory changes affecting the biocompatibility of the implant. Whether the mechanisms governing the type of evolving inflammatory reaction could be attributed to the macrophages functional differentiation mirrored by monocyte subsets during the polymer interaction, is poorly described. This in vitro study, therefore, attempted to investigate whether different biomaterials influence monocyte cellular activity, determined by the myeloperoxidase level and mitochondrial XTT cleavage, and phenotype dynamics characterized by the presence of CD14, RM 3/1 and 27E10 antigens. It is shown that different polymers exert differential potential to influence monocytes, both in their cellular activity and their phenotypic pattern. Thus, these findings demonstrating material-induced monocyte activation and monocyte phenotype modulation, are suggestive of the monocyte role as reporter cells in evaluating the biocompatibility of a synthetic medical device.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The peritoneal resident cell population is influenced by various inflammatory and immunogenic stimuli. The influence of intraperitoneal application of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) (group A) and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) (group B) powders on peritoneal cell count and macrophage activity was investigated. Powders were tested to mimic wear particles from solid implant devices as these particles often cause chronic granulomatous inflammation. The results were compared with the inflammatory response following an abdominal midline incision (group C) and untreated animals (group D). On days 1, 7, 14 and 30 peritoneal cells were quantified and the number of active macrophages was assessed. Groups A and C mice showed a significant loss of macrophages in the peritoneal lavage at day 1 but this returned to normal values (group D) on day 7. In contrast, group B animals remained at low peritoneal cell counts but showed the highest number of active macrophages. Only in this latter group was adhesion formation and granulomatous clustering of polymer powder observed. Applying the parameters macrophage count and the number of active macrophages it can be concluded that PET elicits a weaker inflammatory reaction than UHMW-PE in mice peritoneal cavity. Thus this animal model may be used as a screening test for biomedical materials, especially their wear products.
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