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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Aspergillus aureoluteus ; Aspergillus udagawae ; Brazil ; Neosartorya aureola ; Neosartorya udagawae ; soil fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Neosartorya udagawae, a new heterothallic species isolated from Brazilian soil, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by dull green colony on malt extract agar, light yellow large ascomata, broadly lenticular ascospores with two equatorial or several irregular crests and tuberculate convex surfaces, and with anAspergillus anamorph.Neosartorya aureola is also described as a new record from Brazilian soil.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: iron ; iron chelator ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; plating efficiency ; siderophore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Low-density seedings of yeast cells ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis give poor growth (as assessed by plating efficiency test) on conventional mycological agar media, and therefore growth-promoting factors for this fungus were sought. Water-extracts of yeast cells of sixP. brasiliensis isolates were all considerably effective in promoting the growth of low-density seedings ofP. brasiliensis isolates Pb-18 and Hachisuga, but had little effect on isolate Bt-4. Horse serum, at a concentration range of 2–4%, moderately or considerably promoted the growth of theseP. brasiliensis isolates. Combinations of the fungus cell extracts with horse serum were highly effective in promoting the growth of all of the fungal isolates. The fungus cell extracts showed siderophore (microbial iron carrier) activity. An iron-chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, at a concentration of 100 μM also highly promoted the growth of the fungal isolates in the presence of horse serum, and ferric ion added to culture medium was considerably effective in the growth promotion. These results suggest that deficient utilization of external iron by the fungus cell is one of the growth-limiting processes for low-density seedings of yeast cells ofP. brasiliensis on conventional mycological agar media.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Aspergillus montenegroi ; Brazil ; Emereicella corrugata ; Emericella foveolata ; Emericella montenegroi ; Emericella rugulosa var.Iazulina ; soil fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Among the ascomycete isolates from soil and armadillo dung collected in São Paulo State, Brazil, a new species ofEmericella, E. montenegroi and a new variety ofE. rugulosa, E. rugulosa var.Iazulina are described and illustrated.Emericella montenegroi differs from the other known species of the genus in having ascospores with an incompletely reticulate or ribbed ornamentation on the convex walls.Emericella rugulosa var.Iazulina differs from the type variety in having blue to violet color of ascospores. Isolations ofE. corrugata andE. foveolata are also reported as a South American record. A synoptic key to all accepted species of the genus is provided.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; diO-C6-(3) ; membrane potential ; miconazole ; mitochondria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A flow cytometric method was used to investigate the effect of miconazole (MCZ) on yeast-form cells ofCandida albicans. Relative changes in electric potential of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membranes were assessed by 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (diO-C6-(3)) and bis-(1,3-dibutyl-barbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (diBA-C4-(3)) stainings, respectively. WhenC. albicans was exposed to MCZ at 10 μg/ml (a fungistatic concentration) for 2 h, no change appeared in cytoplasmic membrane potential, which was revealed by constant fluorescence intensity of diBA-C4-(3)-stained cells. On the other hand, the cells lost the ability to accumulate diO-C6-(3) in mitochondria by MCZ treatment. Time- and dose-responses in fluorescence intensity reflected that MCZ affected the mitochondrial activity ofC. albicans.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Cronartium ribicola ; Endocronartium sahoanum var.hokkaidoense ; Peridermium kurilense ; Pinus pumila ; the North Kurils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Morphological examination and PCR-RFLP analysis of the D1/D2 region in nuclear LSU rDNA were carried out to identify a rust fungus onPinus pumila collected in the North Kurils, Russia. Morphologically, the rust from the North Kurils was similar toPeridermium kurilense andEndocronartium sahoanum var.hokkaidoense in the spore surface structure, dimension and shape. In the RFLPs of the D1/D2 region it was identical toE. sahoanum var.hokkaidoense andE. sahoanum var.sahoanum, but distinct fromCronartium ribicola. Therefore, the rust fungus onP. pumila collected in the North Kurils was identified asE. sahoanum var.hokkaidoense. It was also clarified that a rust reported previously asP. kurilense was also identical withE. sahoanum var.hokkaidoense.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Chrysosporium ; coenzyme Q ; dermatophytes ; Onygenales ; ubiquinone system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ubiquinone (coenzyme Q: Q) system of 17 strains of the form-genusChrysosporium was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found to show a heterogeneous distribution of the major ubiquinone. Q-9, Q-10 or Q-10(H2) was found to be the major ubiquinone in 3, 9 and 5 strains, respectively. It was further demonstrated that the teleomorphs of the species characterized by Q-9 and Q-10 could be classified into two separate families, Arthrodermataceae (Q-9) and Onygenaceae (Q-10), which were defined within the revised order Onygenales by Currah. Teleomorphs ofChrysosporium species having Q-10(H2) have not been found. This paper also includes the ubiquinone system of dermatophytes which relate to the form-genusChrysosporium morphologically.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: amphotericin B ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; biocell-tracer ; 5-fluorocytosine ; synergistic effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The biocell-tracer system is a microscopical system to measure the growth rate of a single fungal hypha. The synergistic effect of amphotericin B (AMPH) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) on the growth of hyphae ofAspergillus fumigatus was studied by using this system. Although neither 2µg/ml of AMPH nor 250µg/ml of 5-FC alone showed any effect on the hyphal growth, their combination at these concentrations showed a distinct inhibitory activity. The biocell-tracer system is useful for antifungal activity testing in filamentous fungi.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: morphology ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the physiological and morphological features of 17 isolates ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis in order to define their phenotypes. The isolates were cultured at room temperature on potato dextrose agar (PDA, Difco) slants for mycelial growth and in 1% dextrose brain heart infusion agar (BHIA, Difco) at 37°C for the study of yeast forms. Most mycelial and yeast forms grew well between pH 5.6–9.4. In their response to osmotic pressure the isolates were separated in three groups: intolerant, intermediate and tolerant. They also varied in carbohydrate assimilation tests, which indicated important metabolic variation. No clear differences were observed in phenol oxidase tests, KNO3, starch, casein and arbutin assimilation tests. Only 1 of the isolates, Bt-19, had gelatinase activity. No correlation was observed between the above differences and virulence. Two patterns of growth were observed in the mycelial cultures, glabrous and cottonous, the latter being correlated with increased virulence for ddY mice. Most yeast forms grew as cerebriform colonies, but Pb-HC and Bt-19 colonies had a cobblestone-like surface.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: amphotericin B ; budding yeasts ; Candida albicans ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; vacuolation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of amphotericin B (AMPH) on vacuolation in the budding yeastsSaccharomyces cerevisiae andCandida albicans was studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration of AMPH for growth ofS. cerevisiae andC. albicans was 1 µg/ml. In untreated control cultures, mature cells had large central vacuoles in the exponential phase, which hampered the detection of vacuolation effect. Small buds in untreated exponential phase cells, however, only rarely showed vacuoles under the light microscope. Treatment with 0.2 µg/ml of AMPH for 20–30 min induced extensive vacuolation not only in mothers but also buds ofS. cerevisiae. Extensive vacuolation lasted 4 h or more, and growth rate of the cells was much reduced for 8 h or more. Vacuolation itself was not fatal: on removal of the drug most cells gradually recovered from vacuolation and eventually multiplied. A similar effect of AMPH was also observed inC. albicans but at a higher concentration (0.5 µg/ml).
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2545
    Keywords: Aspergillus botucatensis ; Aspergillus paulistensis ; Brazil ; Neosartorya botucatensis ; Neosartorya paulistensis ; soil fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Among the isolates from soil of corn and sugar cane plantations in São Paulo State, Brazil, two new species ofNeosartorya, N. botucatensis andN. paulistensis, are described and illustrated.Neosartorya botucatensis differs from the other known species of the genus in having ascospores with long spines on the convex walls.Neosartorya paulistensis is characterized by its ascospore walls with spinose and verruculose ornamentation. The former is compared with the closely related speciesN. spinosa, and the latter is closely related toN. glabra, N. pseudofischeri and N. stramenia.
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