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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma ; RF glow discharge ; surface modification ; fluorination ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Plasma treatment of a polymeric surface could involve at least three major mechanisms: (1) direct interaction of reactive species in the low-temperature plasma state with the surface (line of sight irradiation effect), and (2) chemical reactions of plasma-induced reactive species with the surface, and (3) reactions among reactive species and the surface (plasma polymerization). The first and the third effects are considered to be limited to the surfaces which directly contact with plasma (glow). The second effect is not limited to the surfaces that contact with plasma state but can penetrate beyond the plasma zone by diffusion. Using an assembly of fibers, of which only the top layer contacts with plasma (glow), the penetration of chemical changes caused by plasma exposure was investigated. Results indicate that the fluorination effect (incorporation of fluorine-containing moieties on the surface of polymeric substrate) penetrates through a considerable thickness of the assembly of fibers, depending on the porosity (gas permeability) of the system. Chemical reactions of plasma-induced (chemically) reactive but nonpolymerizing species with the substrate fibers seems to predominate. The direct interactions of energetic species, such as ions, electrons, and electronically excited species, with polymeric surfaces seems to play relatively minor roles in the plasma treatment investigated. The major role of plasma, in this case, seems to be creating such chemically reactive species. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma ; cascade arc ; surface modification ; fluorination ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The depth of surface modification by low-temperature cascade arc torch is investigated. A stack of 10 sheets of nonwoven fabrics of polyester fibers is exposed to a low-temperature cascade arc torch containing CF4 or C2F4, and the fluorination effect is examined by ESCA. It is shown that interaction of chemically reactive species, created in a low-temperature cascade arc torch, with the surface is not limited to the surface contacted by the torch (flame). The results indicate that the fluorination effect is observed on surfaces which are shadowed from the torch by overlying fibers. The highest degree of fluorination is found on the second layer, rather than on the first layer which the torch contacts directly. No significant differences in the trends of penetration of CF4 and C2F4 treatment through porous samples are observed. However, ESCA data show principal differences in chemical structures of the surfaces treated with CF4 (nonpolymer-forming gas) and C2F4 (polymer-forming gas). These results indicate that chemically reactive species induced by the excited species of argon rather than primary species created by the ionization process seem to play predominant roles in the surface treatment as well as the low-temperature cascade arc torch polymerization of perfluorinated compounds. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: water barrier ; plasma polymers ; surface dynamics ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Perfluorocarbon monomers such as C2F4, C2F6, C4F10, and mixtures thereof with H2, were subjected to plasma polymerization and deposited onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrates. The effect of plasma conditions, surface characteristics, and surface dynamics of plasma polymers on their ability to improve the resistance to water vapor permeation was investigated. An optimum discharge energy density was found for a monomer which provided the greatest reduction water vapor permeability. Although all of the plasma polymers show higher hydrophobicity than polyethylene, the reduction in water vapor permeability is not uniquely related to water contact angle. The surface-dynamic stability of a plasma polymer surface was found to be the key factor in determining the barrier performance of the plasma polymer. The extent of change of surface-configuration after water immersion strongly correlated with the improvement in the water vapor permeation resistance. Plasma polymers with the higher surface-dynamic stability provided the better water barrier coating applied on LDPE films. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma ; cascade arc ; surface modification ; fluorination ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The depth and possible mechanisms of the penetration of surface modification into porous media by a low temperature cascade are torch are investigated. Two different modes of such penetration (“flow controlled” and “diffusion controlled”) are evaluated. Three porous samples [stacks of 10 sheets of nonwoven fabrics of poly(ethylene terephthalate)each], placed at an axial distance of 24, 28, and 32 cm from the cascade are anode, are exposed to a low temperature cascade arc torch containing argon and CF4 or C2F4, and surface properties of each of the sheets within treated porous samples are examined by ESCA. It is shown that interaction of chemically reactive species, created in the low temperature cascade arc torch, with the surface is not limited to the surface directly contacted by the torch. The flow controlled penetration is more pronounced for the outer layers, while diffusion controlled penetration is within the inner layers of the porous structure. Substantial differences in the fluorination effect of CF4 (nonpolymer forming gas) and C2F4 (polymer forming gas) discharges for the second and third stacks are observed, that can be explained by the fact that the major effect of the CF4 cascade arc torch treatment is based on the reaction of reactive species with the surface polymer molecules. The effect of C2F4 cascade arc torch treatment is based on the reactions of reactive species with polymers as well as reactions of reactive species themselves at the surface (plasma polymerization). Reactivity of the species created in C2F4 discharge is much higher compared to that created in CF4 discharge, which is one of the major factors influencing penetration trends of low temperature cascade arc treatment into porous media. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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