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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; MODEL ; GENE ; transcription ; DRUG ; MICE ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; TARGET ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; c-Fos ; STRESS ; transgenic ; AMPHETAMINE ; cocaine ; CORTICOSTERONE ; DOPAMINERGIC TRANSMISSION ; glucocorticoid receptor ; INDIVIDUAL VULNERABILITY ; INDUCED SENSITIZATION ; intravenous ; mifepristone ; PROGRESSIVE RATIO SCHEDULE ; SEEKING BEHAVIOR ; self-administration ; sensitization
    Abstract: Several findings suggest that glucocorticoid hormones are involved in determining the propensity of an individual to develop cocaine abuse. These hormones activate two related transcription factors, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor. In this study, we show that the selective inactivation of the GR gene in the brains of mice profoundly flattened the dose - response function for cocaine intravenous self-administration and suppressed sensitization, two experimental procedures considered relevant models of addiction. Furthermore, administration of a GR antagonist dose- dependently reduced the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Importantly, the absence of GR did not modify the basal behavioral and molecular effects of cocaine but selectively modified the excessive response to the drug spontaneously present in certain vulnerable individuals or induced by repeated drug exposure in others. In conclusion, we provide the first genetic evidence that the GR gene can modulate cocaine abuse. This suggests that targeting GR function in the brain could provide new therapeutic strategies to treat cocaine addiction for which there is no available treatment
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12805318
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Active avoidance ; Arginine vasopressin ; Blood pressure ; Extinction
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Analgesia ; Antiopiate activity ; Hyperesthesia ; Morphine ; NPFF ; Tail-flick test
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Neuronal transplantation ; Dopaminergic grafts d-amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rats with dopaminergic lesions were subsequently given grafts of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in various brain regions, and later tested for behavioral reactivity to amphetamine. Two experimental situations were used. 1) Amphetamine-induced circling behavior was measured in animals with unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway implanted with intrastriatal grafts, 2) locomotor activation by amphetamine was measured in animals with bilateral lesions and grafts in the nucleus accumbens. In both situations, behavioral overcompensation was observed after grafting. Ipsilateral circling, which is caracteristic of a unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, gave way to contralateral circling, and locomotor activity was restored to levels above those observed for control animals. This behavioral overcompensation is a reflection of hyperreactivity of grafted animals to amphetamine: they were found to respond to much lower doses than controls and the effect of the drug lasted longer. This enhanced response does not seem to be due to post-synaptic hypersensitivity, but rather to hyper-reactivity of the grafted neurons themselves to amphetamine. The mechanism of this phenomenon, which seems to be a general property of grafted DA neurons is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Acetylcholine release ; Cholinergic neurons ; Dopamine release ; Dopaminergic transplants ; In vitro release ; Neuronal transplantation ; Nigrostriatal system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of the study was to examine the influence of intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts on the functioning of striatal cholinergic neurons using an in vitro superfusion method. Rats bearing unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system received a cell suspension obtained from ED 14 rat embryonic mesencephali which was injected into the denervated striatum. Lesioned animals displayed an ipsilateral rotation in response to amphetamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). This rotational response disappeared following grafting and there was even a significant contralateral rotation in response to the drug. Apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) induced a contralateral rotation following the lesion. This latter response was attenuated in the grafted group. Three months after grafting 350 μm thick slices were prepared from striata from the control and experimental sides of lesioned and graft-bearing animals. The slices were preincubated either with 3H-dopamine (10-7 M) or 3H-choline (10-7 M) and then superfused with an oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. Stimulation with electrical pulses following preincubation with 3H-dopamine elicited a marked increase of tritium outflow from control slices. Stimulation-evoked overflow was of similar magnitude from slices from striata containing the graft, while it was much reduced in slices from lesioned striata. Amphetamine markedly potentiated the effect of electrical stimulation in slices obtained from control and graft-containing striata. Nomifensine (a dopamine uptake blocker) led to a significant decrease of the overflow of 3H-acetylcholine evoked by electrical stimulation from control striatal slices. This inhibition was antagonized by domperidone, a D2 dopamine receptor blocker, a finding which indicates that the action of nomifensine was indeed due to a potentiation of the action of endogenous dopamine released by the electrical stimulation. A similar, although somewhat attenuated, action of nomifensine and domperidone was observed for striatal slices containing the graft. Amphetamine inhibited the stimulation evoked overflow of 3H-acetylcholine in a dose-dependent manner from striatal slices obtained both from the intact and experimental sides of graft-bearing animals, while it had no action on slices from denervated striata. Finally, the dose-response curve for the inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release by apomorphine was significantly shifted to the left for slices from the lesioned striata as compared with control slices. This leftward shift was totally abolished in the slices from the graft-containing striatum. These results indicate that the dopaminergic inhibition of the striatal cholinergic interneurons, abolished by the lesion, is restored by intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts both in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand the lack of correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro effects (rotational response vs. inhibition of 3H-acetylcholine release) suggest that the effect of such grafts on rotational behavior cannot be explained solely by their action on the striatal cholinergic neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: 6-OHDA ; Fink-Heimer method ; Selective degenerations ; Nigroneostriatal A9 system ; Meso-limbic A10 system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Following local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 1 μg/ 0.5 μl) in the nigrostriatal (A9) and mesolimbic (A10) cellular groups, terminal degenerations were shown by the Fink and Heimer technique, in the nucleus caudatus-putamen and the nucleus accumbens respectively. In order to test the selective action of 6-OHDA, we studied non aminergic rostro-caudal projections of the fasciculus median's prosencephali at the level of the nucleus dorsalis tegmenti with a 6-OHDA injection in the A10 cells group and a lesion by electrocoagulation in the contralateral A10 area. Terminal degenerations were observed only on the ipsilateral side to the lesion produced by electrocoagulation. The combined use of local injection of 6-OHDA and of Fink and Heimer's stain may be envisaged for the anatomical study of central catecholaminergic systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The gyrus dentatus is one of the few areas of the brain that continues to produce neurons after birth. The newborn cells differentiate into granule cells which project axons to their postsynaptic targets. This step is accompanied by the transient expression of the polysialylated isoforms of neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAM) by the developing neurons. Glucocorticoid hormones have been shown to inhibit neurogenesis. We noted a functional correlation between PSA-NCAM expression and glucocorticoid action after manipulation of corticosterone levels in the adrenalectomized rat. Adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis, evaluated from the incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine in neuronal precursors, as well as PSA-NCAM expression. The increase in PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the gyrus dentatus, evidenced 72 h following adrenalectomy, persisted for at least a month. It was accompanied by enhanced dendritic arborization of PSA-NCAM-IR cells in the gyrus dentatus and by an increase in number of PSA-NCAM-IR fibres in the CA3 subfield. Neurogenesis was normalized by restitution of diurnal or nocturnal levels of corticosterone, whereas normalization of PSA-NCAM expression was only observed after simulation of the complete circadian fluctuation of the hormone. Our findings reveal the complex action of corticosterone in modulating the expression of PSA-NCAM in the gyrus dentatus of the hippocampal formation. They also highlight the importance of corticosterone fluctuations in the control of neurogenesis and plasticity in this structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the our experiment was to compare the ability of intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons to reverse two kinds of postlesion modification in the host brain: the change in the activity level of neurons in the denervated area and morphological modifications, e.g. collateral sprouting. The ascending dopaminergic system of 3-day-old rat pups was unilaterally lesioned by an intrahypothalamic injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. This lesion has been described previously to induce an increase in the level of activity of striatal enkephalinergic neurons. The same lesion leads also to sprouting of the serotoninergic afferents in the striatum, leading to hyperinnervation of this structure. The existence of these modifications thus offers the possibility of testing the influence of grafts in one structure of the same animal on two lesion-induced reactions of different nature. A cell suspension obtained from mesencephali of embryonic day 14 rats and containing dopaminergic neurons was implanted into the denervated striatum of lesioned animals 5 days after the lesion. Nine months later the animals were killed and immunohistochemistry was performed on striatal sections using antibodies directed against tyrosine hydroxylase, methionine enkephalin and serotonin. Intensity of immunostaining (methionine enkephalin and serotonin) as well as innervation density (serotonin) was quantified through the use of a computer-assisted image analyser. The lesion led to the disappearance of striatal dopaminergic innervation. Implanted dopaminergic neurons were found scattered in the striatum and restored a dopaminergic innervation in a large portion of this structure. There was a marked increase in striatal methionine enkephalin immunostaining in lesioned animals, which was most pronounced in the dorsolateral part of the striatum (+ 150% compared to control values), while in the ventral part it was slight or non-existent. The density of striatal serotoninergic innervation was also increased by ∼250% relative to control values. In grafted animals striatal enkephalin immunostaining was similar to that observed in control animals. On the other hand, the serotoninergic hyperinnervation was still present in the graft-bearing striata. These results suggest that while intrastriatal implants of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to counteract modifications in the functioning of local striatal neuronal systems such as the increase in enkephalinergic activity or receptor hypersensitivity occurring as a result of the lesion, they might be unable to reverse postlesion morphological modifications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Changes in striatal dopamine D2 receptor mRNA levels provoked by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway were studied by in situ hybridization. The influence of embryonic dopaminergic neurons implanted into the dopamine-depleted striatum on the lesion-induced changes was also examined. Changes in D2 mRNA levels were compared with changes in D2 receptor densities measured in the same animals by receptor autoradiography using [3H]spiperone or [3H]SDZ 205–501 as ligands. The distribution of D2 mRNA in the striatum of control animals closely paralleled that of the D2 receptor itself, as assessed by autoradiography, and the highest density of D2 mRNA occurred in the lateral part of the striatum. One month after lesion, levels of D2 mRNA were 34% higher in the dorsolateral part of the dopamine-depleted striatum than in the corresponding region of the contralateral control striatum. D2 receptor density in this region was increased by 40% relative to the control level. No significant increases could be measured in the medial part of the striatum. The increases in the lateral part were similar at 7 months post-lesion; however, at this time the increase in both D2 mRNA and receptor levels had spread to the medial part of the striatum as well. In the graft-bearing striatum levels of both D2 mRNA and D2 receptors reverted to control levels. This study shows that the post-lesion increase in striatal dopamine receptor and mRNA level is a biphasic phenomenon with a late-occurring component in the medial striatum. It also shows that once the increase in striatal D2 receptor gene expression is accomplished, it is maintained unchanged for long periods, similar to that of D2 receptor levels themselves. Moreover, grafts of embryonic dopaminergic neurons are able to modulate the expression of the dopamine D2 receptor gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dentate gyrus is one of the few areas of the adult brain that continues to produce neurons and to express the embryonic polysialylated isoforms of neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAM). The stress hormone corticosterone exerts a complex modulation on neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM, and previous studies have shown that mature granule cells require corticosterone for their survival. Thus, the aim of our work was to investigate the respective role of the different corticosteroid receptors on these three parameters in adrenalectomized rats. It was found that treatment with a low dose of the mineralocorticoid receptor agonist, aldosterone, prevents only the adrenalectomy-induced increase in cell death. Treatment with a higher dose of aldosterone normalized cell proliferation whereas PSA-NCAM expression was normalized only by treatment with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist, RU 28362. It is concluded that stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor is sufficient to mediate the effects of corticosterone on neurogenesis and to protect mature cells from cell death whereas stimulation of the glucocorticoid receptor is necessary to modulate PSA-NCAM expression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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